How Biomechanical Improvements in Running Economy Could Break the 2-hour Marathon Barrier


A sub-2-hour marathon requires an average velocity (5.86 m/s) that is 2.5% faster than the current world record of 02:02:57 (5.72 m/s) and could be accomplished with a 2.7% reduction in the metabolic cost of running. Although supporting body weight comprises the majority of the metabolic cost of running, targeting the costs of forward propulsion and leg swing are the most promising strategies for reducing the metabolic cost of running and thus improving marathon running performance. Here, we calculate how much time could be saved by taking advantage of unconventional drafting strategies, a consistent tailwind, a downhill course, and specific running shoe design features while staying within the current International Association of Athletic Federations regulations for record purposes. Specifically, running in shoes that are 100 g lighter along with second-half scenarios of four runners alternately leading and drafting, or a tailwind of 6.0 m/s, combined with a 42-m elevation drop could result in a time well below the 2-hour marathon barrier.

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    Examples include 5000-m runner Harald Norpoth and cyclist Michael Rasmussen.

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    For sprinting events on the track, the maximum IAAF allowable wind velocity for record purposes is only 2.0 m/s (IAAF rule 260.14c [54]).

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    Read more on the 2011 Boston Marathon here:


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The authors thank Owen Beck, Len Brownlie, Dan Judelson, and Geng Luo for fruitful discussions, Elissa Johnson for illustrations, and Sean Hartnett for the Berlin 2014 split time data.

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Correspondence to Wouter Hoogkamer.

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Wouter Hoogkamer and Christopher Arellano have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review. Rodger Kram is a paid consultant to Nike, Inc., which is engaged in a sub-2-hour marathon project. The views expressed in this manuscript do not represent those of Nike, Inc.

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Hoogkamer, W., Kram, R. & Arellano, C.J. How Biomechanical Improvements in Running Economy Could Break the 2-hour Marathon Barrier. Sports Med 47, 1739–1750 (2017).

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