Joyner MJ, Ruiz JR, Lucia A. The two-hour marathon: who and when? J Appl Physiol. 2011;110:275–7.
Weiss M, Newman A, Whitmore C, et al. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running—past trends and future prospects. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16:393–401.
Hill AV. The physiological basis of athletic records. Lancet. 1925;206:481–6.
Kennelly AE. An approximate law of fatigue in the speeds of racing animals. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci. 1906;42:275.
Liu Y, Schutz RW. Prediction models for track and field performances. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 1998;2:205–23.
Caesar E. Two hours: the quest to run the impossible marathon. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2015.
Tucker R, Santos-Concejero J. An imminent sub 2-hours marathon is unlikely: historical trends of the gender gap in running events. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Epub 14 December 2016.
Hutchinson A. What will it take to run a 2-hour marathon. Runner’s world. http://rw.runnersworld.com/sub-2.
Nike introduces breaking2: the quest to break the two-hour marathon barrier. Nike News; 2016 December 12. http://news.nike.com/news/2-hour-marathon.
Germano S. Adidas, like Nike, is working on sub-2 hour marathon project. Wall Street J. 2016 Dec 16. https://www.wsj.com/articles/adidas-like-nike-is-working-on-sub-2-hour-marathon-project-1481886001.
Sub2. Countdown to the first sub2hr marathon: no longer a matter of if but rather when. http://www.sub2hrs.com/.
Péronnet F, Thibault G. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records. J Appl Physiol. 1989;67:453–65.
Joyner MJ. Modeling: optimal marathon performance on the basis of physiological factors. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70:683–7.
Joyner MJ, Coyle EF. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. J Physiol. 2008;586:35–44.
Shaw AJ, Ingham SA, Atkinson G, et al. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0123101.
Bassett DR, Howley ET. Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:70–84.
Coyle EF. Integration of the physiological factors determining endurance performance ability. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1995;23:25–63.
Williams KR, Cavanagh PR. Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance. J Appl Physiol. 1987;63:1236–45.
Fuller JT, Bellenger CR, Thewlis D, et al. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners. Sports Med. 2015;45:411–22.
Hoogkamer W, Kipp S, Spiering BA, et al. Altered running economy directly translates to altered distance-running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2175–80.
El Helou N, Tafflet M, Berthelot G, et al. Impact of environmental parameters on marathon running performance. PLoS One. 2012;7:e37407.
Di Prampero PE, Atchou G, Brückner JC, et al. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1986;55:259–66.
Smith CGM, Jones AM. The relationship between critical velocity, maximal lactate steady-state velocity and lactate turnpoint velocity in runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85:19–26.
Poole DC, Burnley M, Vanhatalo A, et al. Critical power: an important fatigue threshold in exercise physiology. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2320–34.
Frederick EC, Daniels JT, Hayes JW. The effect of shoe weight on the aerobic demands of running. In: Bachl N, Prokop L, Suckert R, editors. Curr Top Sports Med Proc World Congr Sports Med. Vienna: Urban and Schwarzenberg; 1984. p. 616–25.
Franz JR, Wierzbinski CM, Kram R. Metabolic cost of running barefoot versus shod. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1519–25.
Pugh LG. Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance. J Physiol. 1970;207:823–35.
Steudel-Numbers KL, Wall-Scheffler CM. Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies. J Hum Evol. 2009;56:355–60.
Daniels J, Krahenbuhl G, Foster C, et al. Aerobic responses of female distance runners to submaximal and maximal exercise. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1977;301:726–33.
Daniels JT. A physiologist’s view of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17:332–8.
Batliner M. Does VO2 increase linearly with speed in average and sub-elite distance runners?. Boulder: University of Colorado; 2013.
Margaria R, Cerretelli P, Aghemo P, et al. Energy cost of running. J Appl Physiol. 1963;18:367–70.
Léger L, Mercier D. Gross energy cost of horizontal treadmill and track running. Sports Med. 1984;1:270–7.
Jones AM, Doust JH. A 1% treadmill grade most accurately reflects the energetic cost of outdoor running. J Sports Sci. 1996;14:321–7.
Kyle CR, Caiozzo VJ. The effect of athletic clothing aerodynamics upon running speed. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986;18:509–15.
McMiken DF, Daniels JT. Aerobic requirements and maximum aerobic power in treadmill and track running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1976;8:14–7.
Tam E, Rossi H, Moia C, et al. Energetics of running in top-level marathon runners from Kenya. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:3797–806.
Pugh LG. The influence of wind resistance in running and walking and the mechanical efficiency of work against horizontal or vertical forces. J Physiol. 1971;213:255–76.
Di Prampero P. The energy cost of human locomotion on land and in water. Int J Sports Med. 1986;07:55–72.
Pollock ML. Submaximal and maximal working capacity of elite distance runners. Part I: cardiorespiratory aspects. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1977;301:310–22.
Larsen HB. Kenyan dominance in distance running. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003;136:161–70.
Daniels JT, Gilbert J. Oxygen power: performance tables for distance runners. Tempe, AZ: Daniels and Gilbert; 1979.
Brueckner JC, Atchou G, Capelli C, et al. The energy cost of running increases with the distance covered. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1991;62:385–9.
Nicol C, Komi PV, Marconnet P. Effects of marathon fatigue on running kinematics and economy. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1991;1:195–204.
Kyröläinen H, Pullinen T, Candau R, et al. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82:297–304.
Lacour JR, Bourdin M. Factors affecting the energy cost of level running at submaximal speed. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115:651–73.
Arellano CJ, Kram R. Partitioning the metabolic cost of human running: a task-by-task approach. Integr Comp Biol. 2014;54:1084–98.
Kram R, Taylor CR. Energetics of running: a new perspective. Nature. 1990;346:265–7.
Teunissen LPJ, Grabowski A, Kram R. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:4418–27.
Aaron EA, Johnson BD, Seow CK, et al. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnea: measurement. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72:1810–7.
Aaron EA, Seow KC, Johnson BD, et al. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnea: implications for performance. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72:1818–25.
Farley CT, McMahon TA. Energetics of walking and running: insights from simulated reduced-gravity experiments. J Appl Physiol. 1992;73:2709–12.
Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, et al. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance? Sports Med. 2007;37:907–21.
Coyle EF, González-Alonso J. Cardiovascular drift during prolonged exercise: new perspectives. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2001;29:88–92.
Armstrong LE, Whittlesey MJ, Casa DJ, et al. No effect of 5% hypohydration on running economy of competitive runners at 23 degrees C. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1762–9.
Beis LY, Wright-Whyte M, Fudge B, et al. Drinking behaviors of elite male runners during marathon competition. Clin J Sports Med. 2012;22:254–61.
Pavei G, Biancardi CM, Minetti AE. Skipping vs. running as the bipedal gait of choice in hypogravity. J Appl Physiol. 2015;119:93–100.
Kerdok AE, Biewener AA, McMahon TA, et al. Energetics and mechanics of human running on surfaces of different stiffnesses. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92:469–78.
Tung KD, Franz JR, Kram R. A test of the metabolic cost of cushioning hypothesis during unshod and shod running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46:324–9.
International Association of Athletics Federations. Competition rules 2016–2017. Monaco: International Association of Athletics Federations; 2015.
Chang YH, Kram R. Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86:1657–62.
Vernillo G, Schena F, Berardelli C, et al. Anthropometric characteristics of top-class Kenyan marathon runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013;53:403–8.
Brisswalter J, Hausswirth C. Consequences of drafting on human locomotion: benefits on sports performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3:3–15.
International Association of Athletics Federations. Records and lists: top lists. Senior outdoor half marathon men. https://www.iaaf.org/records/toplists/road-running/half-marathon/outdoor/men/senior.
Kyle CR. Reduction of wind resistance and power output of racing cyclists and runners traveling in groups. Ergonomics. 1979;22:387–97.
Davies CT. Effects of wind assistance and resistance on the forward motion of a runner. J Appl Physiol. 1980;48:702–9.
Snyder KL, Farley CT. Energetically optimal stride frequency in running: the effects of incline and decline. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2089–95.
Minetti AE, Ardigò LP, Saibene F. Mechanical determinants of the minimum energy cost of gradient running in humans. J Exp Biol. 1994;195:211–25.
Minetti AE, Moia C, Roi GS, et al. Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93:1039–46.
Myers MJ, Steudel K. Effect of limb mass and its distribution on the energetic cost of running. J Exp Biol. 1985;116:363–73.
Martin PE. Mechanical and physiological responses to lower extremity loading during running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17:427–33.
Saltin B, Larsen H, Terrados N, et al. Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995;5:209–21.
Brüggemann G-P, Arampatzis A, Emrich F, et al. Biomechanics of double transtibial amputee sprinting using dedicated sprinting prostheses. Sports Technol. 2009;1:220–7.
Weyand PG, Bundle MW, McGowan CP, et al. The fastest runner on artificial legs: different limbs, similar function? J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:903–11.
Beck ON, Taboga P, Grabowski AM. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations. J Appl Physiol. 2017. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00587.2016.
Frederick EC, Clarke TE, Larsen JL, et al. The effects of shoe cushioning on the oxygen demands of running. In: Nigg BM, Kerr BA, editors. Biomechanical aspects of sports shoes and playing surfaces. Calgary: The University of Calgary; 1983. p. 107–14.
Worobets J, Wannop JW, Tomaras E, et al. Softer and more resilient running shoe cushioning properties enhance running economy. Footwear Sci. 2014;6:147–53.
Frederick EC, Howley ET, Powers SK. Lower O2 cost while running on air cushion type shoe. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12:81–2.
Roy J-PR, Stefanyshyn DJ. Shoe midsole longitudinal bending stiffness and running economy, joint energy, and EMG. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:562–9.
Madden R, Sakaguchi M, Wannop J, et al. Forefoot bending stiffness, running economy and kinematics during overground running. Footwear Sci. 2015;7:S11–3.