Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 1847–1857 | Cite as

Exercise-Based Interventions for Injury Prevention in Tackle Collision Ball Sports: A Systematic Review

  • Nicola Sewry
  • Evert Verhagen
  • Mike Lambert
  • Willem van Mechelen
  • Wayne Viljoen
  • Clint Readhead
  • James Brown
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited.

Objective

The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports.

Data sources

PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool.

Study selection

The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English.

Results

Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk.

Conclusions

There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.

References

  1. 1.
    Duthie G, Pyne D, Hooper S. Applied physiology and game analysis of rugby union. Sports Med. 2003;33(13):973–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hendricks S, Lambert M. Tackling in rugby: coaching strategies for effective technique and injury prevention. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2010;5(1):117–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Quarrie K, Hopkins W. Tackle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(9):1705–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hendricks S, Karpul D, Lambert M. Momentum and kinetic energy during the tackle in rugby union. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(3):557.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hendricks S, Lambert MI, Brown JC, et al. An evidence-driven approach to scrum law modifications in amateur rugby played in South Africa. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(14):1115–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quarrie K, Wilson B. Force production in the rugby union scrum. J Sports Sci. 2000;18:237–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burger N, Lambert MI, Viljoen W, et al. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(8):e005556.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekegren CL, Gabbe BJ, Donaldson A, et al. Injuries in community-level Australian football: results from a club-based injury surveillance system. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(6):651–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):311–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams S, Trewartha G, Kemp S, et al. A meta-analysis of injuries in senior men’s professional Rugby Union. Sports Med. 2013;43(10):1043–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bengtsson H, Ekstrand J, Waldén M, et al. Match injury rates in professional soccer vary with match result, match venue, and type of competition. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(7):1505–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Verhagen EALM, van Mechelen W. Sport for all, injury prevention for all. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(3):158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown JC, Viljoen W, Lambert MI, et al. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(4):394–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verhagen E, Finch CF. Setting our minds to implementation. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(13):1015–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van der Horst N, Smits D-W, Petersen J, et al. The preventive effect of the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(6):1316–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Longo UG, Loppini M, Berton A, et al. The FIFA 11+ program is effective in preventing injuries in elite male basketball players: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(5):996–1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Owoeye OBA, Akinbo SRA, Tella BA, et al. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ warm-up programme in male youth football: a cluster randomised controlled trial. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(2):321–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silvers-Granelli H, Mandelbaum B, Adeniji O, et al. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program in the collegiate male soccer player. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(11):2628–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. Quality assessment tool. 2006. http://bjmt.cochrane.org/sites/bjmt.cochrane.org/files/public/uploads/Quality%20assessment%20tool.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2016.
  20. 20.
    Phillips B, Ball C, Sackett D, et al. Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine-levels of evidence. 2001. http://www.cebm.net/ocebm-levels-of-evidence/. Accessed 10 April 2016.
  21. 21.
    Brooks JH, Fuller CW, Kemp SP, et al. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(8):1297–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cross KM, Worrell TW. Effects of a static stretching program on the incidence of lower extremity musculotendinous strains. J Athl Train. 1999;34(1):11–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McHugh MP, Tyler TF, Mirabella MR, et al. The effectiveness of a balance training intervention in reducing the incidence of noncontact ankle sprains in high school football players. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(8):1289–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naish R, Burnett A, Burrows S, et al. Can a specific neck strengthening program decrease cervical spine injuries in a men’s professional Rugby union team? A retrospective analysis. J Sports Sci Med. 2013;12(3):542–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scase E, Cook J, Makdissi M, et al. Teaching landing skills in elite junior Australian football: evaluation of an injury prevention strategy. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(10):834–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verrall GM, Slavotinek JP, Barnes PG. The effect of sports specific training on reducing the incidence of hamstring injuries in professional Australian Rules football players. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(6):363–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Finch CF, Twomey DM, Fortington LV, et al. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial. Inj Prev. 2016;22(2):123–8. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041667.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gabbe BJ, Branson R, Bennell KL. A pilot randomised controlled trial of eccentric exercise to prevent hamstring injuries in community-level Australian Football. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(1–2):103–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hides JA, Stanton WR. Can motor control training lower the risk of injury for professional football players? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(4):762–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fuller C, Molloy M, Bagate C, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(5):328–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    van Beijsterveldt AMC, van der Horst N, van de Port IGL, et al. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? Sports Med. 2013;43(4):257–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barengo NC, Meneses-Echávez JF, Ramírez-Vélez R, et al. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(11):11986–2000.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McGuine TA, Keene JS. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(7):1103–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Verhagen E, Van der Beek A, Twisk J, et al. The effect of a proprioceptive balance board training program for the prevention of ankle sprains a prospective controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(6):1385–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olsen O-E, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005;330(7489):449.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petersen J, Thorborg K, Nielsen MB, et al. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men’s soccer a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(11):2296–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rössler R, Donath L, Verhagen E, et al. Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(12):1733–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Verhagen EALM, Hupperets MDW, Finch CF, et al. The impact of adherence on sports injury prevention effect estimates in randomised controlled trials: Looking beyond the CONSORT statement. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14(4):287–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finch CF, Donaldson A. A sports setting matrix for understanding the implementation context for community sport. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(13):973–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human BiologyUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Amsterdam Collaboration on Health and Safety in Sports, Department of Public and Occupational Health and EMGO+ InstituteVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.South African Rugby UnionCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations