Noakes TD. Time to move beyond a brainless exercise physiology: the evidence for complex regulation of human exercise performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(1):23–35.
St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD. Evidence for complex system integration and dynamic neural regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(6):797–806.
Craig AD. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13(4):500–5.
Marino FE, Gard M, Drinkwater EJ. The limits to exercise performance and the future of fatigue research. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(1):65–7.
Karageorghis CI, Priest DL. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part I). Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;5(1):44–66.
Lamarche L, Gammage KL, Gabriel DA. The effects of experimenter gender on state social physique anxiety and strength in a testing environment. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(2):533–8.
Jones HS, Williams EL, Bridge CA, et al. Physiological and psychological effects of deception on pacing strategy and performance: a review. Sports Med. 2013;43(12):1243–57.
Burke LM, Maughan RJ. The Governor has a sweet tooth: mouth sensing of nutrients to enhance sports performance. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(1):29–40.
Simon SA, de Araujo IE, Gutierrez R, et al. The neural mechanisms of gustation: a distributed processing code. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(11):890–901.
Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol. 2009;587(Pt 8):1779–94.
Mundel T, Jones DA. The effects of swilling an l(-)-menthol solution during exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(1):59–65.
Eccles R. Role of cold receptors and menthol in thirst, the drive to breathe and arousal. Appetite. 2000;34(1):29–35.
Naito K, Komori M, Kondo Y, et al. The effect of l-menthol stimulation of the major palatine nerve on subjective and objective nasal patency. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1997;24(2):159–62.
Patel T, Ishiuji Y, Yosipovitch G. Menthol: a refreshing look at this ancient compound. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57(5):873–8.
Eccles R. Menthol and related cooling compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994;46(8):618–30.
Schlader ZJ, Simmons SE, Stannard SR, et al. The independent roles of temperature and thermal perception in the control of human thermoregulatory behavior. Physiol Behav. 2011;103(2):217–24.
Stevens CJ, Taylor L, Dascombe BJ. Cooling during exercise: an overlooked strategy for enhancing endurance performance in the heat. Sports Med. 2016. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0625-7.
Johar P, Grover V, Topp R, et al. A comparison of topical menthol to ice on pain, evoked tetanic and voluntary force during delayed onset muscle soreness. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012;7(3):314–22.
Stevens CJ, Thoseby B, Sculley DV, et al. Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(10):1209–16.
Riera F, Trong TT, Sinnapah S, et al. Physical and perceptual cooling with beverages to increase cycle performance in a tropical climate. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e103718.
Tran Trong T, Riera F, Rinaldi K, et al. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123815.
Barwood MJ, Corbett J, Thomas K, et al. Relieving thermal discomfore: effects of sprayed l-menthol on perception, performance, and time trial cycling in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(Suppl. 1):211–8.
Kounalakis SN, Botonis PG, Koskolou MD, et al. The effect of menthol application to the skin on sweating rate response during exercise in swimmers and controls. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(2):183–9.
Watson HR, Hems R, Roswell DG, et al. New compunds with menthol cooling effects. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1978;29:185–200.
Stevens CJ, Bennett KJ, Sculley D, et al. A comparison of mixed-method cooling interventions on pre-loaded running performance in the heat. J Strength Cond Res. 2016. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001532.
Riera F, Tran Trong T, Rinaldi K, et al. Precooling does not enhance the effect on performance of midcooling with ice-slush/menthol. Int J Sports Med. 2016;37(1–7). doi:10.1055/s-0042-107597
Maunder E, Laursen PB, Kilding AE. Effect of ad libitum ice slurry and cold fluid ingestion on cycling time-trial performance in the heat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016:1–19. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0764.
Sönmez G, Çolak M, Sönmez S, et al. Effects of oral supplementation of mint extract on muscle pain and blood lactate. Biomed Hum Kinetics. 2010;2:66–9.
Meamarbashi A. Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise performance. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4(1):72–8.
Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. The effects of peppermint on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):15.
Barwood MJ, Corbett J, White D, et al. Early change in thermal perception is not a driver of anticipatory exercise pacing in the heat. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(13):936–42.
Barwood MJ, Corbett J, White DK. Spraying with 0.20% l-menthol does not enhance 5 k running performance in the heat in untrained runners. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2014;54(5):595–604.
Topp R, Winchester L, Mink AM, et al. Comparison of the effects of ice and 3.5% menthol gel on blood flow and muscle strength of the lower arm. J Sport Rehabil. 2011;20(3):355–66.
Akehi K, Long BC. Application of menthol counterirritant: effect on hamstring flexibility, sensation of pressure, and skin surface temperature. Athletic Train Sports Health Care. 2013;5(5):234–40.
Haynes SC, Perrin DH. Effect of a counterirritant on pain and restricted range of motion associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. J Sport Rehabil. 1992;1(1):13–8.
Gillis DJ, Barwood MJ, Newton PS, et al. The influence of a menthol and ethanol soaked garment on human temperature regulation and perception during exercise and rest in warm, humid conditions. J Therm Biol. 2016;58:99–105.
Smith AP, Boden C. Effects of chewing menthol gum on the alertness of healthy volunteers and those with an upper respiratory tract illness. Stress Health. 2013;29(2):138–42.
Filingeri D. Neurophysiology of skin thermal sensations. Compr Physiol. 2016;6(3):1429.
Gillis DJ, House JR, Tipton MJ. The influence of menthol on thermoregulation and perception during exercise in warm, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110(3):609–18.
Valente A, Carrillo AE, Tzatzarakis MN, et al. The absorption and metabolism of a single l-menthol oral versus skin administration: effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015;86:262–73.
Gillis DJ, Weston N, House JR, et al. Influence of repeated daily menthol exposure on human temperature regulation and perception. Physiol Behav. 2015;139:511–8.
Nishino T, Tagaito Y, Sakurai Y. Nasal inhalation of l-menthol reduces respiratory discomfort associated with loaded breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(1):309–13.
Fisher JT. TRPM8 and dyspnea: from the frigid and fascinating past to the cool future? Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011;11(3):218–23.
Blackie SP, Fairbarn MS, McElvaney NG, et al. Normal values and ranges for ventilation and breathing pattern at maximal exercise. Chest. 1991;100(1):136–42.
Kenia P, Houghton T, Beardsmore C. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43(6):532–7.
Pereira EJ, Sim L, Driver H, et al. The effect of inhaled menthol on upper airway resistance in humans: a randomized controlled crossover study. Can Respir J. 2013;20(1):e1–4.
Macpherson LJ, Hwang SW, Miyamoto T, et al. More than cool: promiscuous relationships of menthol and other sensory compounds. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32(4):335–43.
Topp R, Brosky JA, Jr., Pieschel D. The effect of either topical menthol or a placebo on functioning and knee pain among patients with knee OA. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2013;36(2):92–9.
Warm JS, Dember WN, Parasuraman R. Effects of olfactory stimulation on performance and stress. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1991;42(3):199–210.
Zhang Y, Balilionis G, Casaru C, et al. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Appl Ergon. 2014;45(3):510–4.
Stevens C, Dascombe B. The reliability and validity of protocols for the assessment of endurance sports performance: an updated review. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2015;19(4):177–85.