Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1221–1230 | Cite as

Neuromechanical Modulation of the Achilles Tendon During Bilateral Hopping in Patients with Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture, Over 1 Year After Surgical Repair

  • Hiroyuki OdaEmail author
  • Kanae Sano
  • Yoko Kunimasa
  • Paavo V. Komi
  • Masaki Ishikawa
Original Research Article



Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle–tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair.


The purpose of this study was to examine muscle–tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping.


We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1–2 years. Subjects performed bilateral hopping while we took ultrasound, kinematic, and electromyogram recordings and measurements. AT behaviors were also recorded. We then compared responses between values obtained from the ruptured AT leg (LEGATR) and non-ruptured AT leg (LEGNOR).


During hopping, the AT stretching amplitudes were greater in the LEGATR than in the LEGNOR, although the peak AT force and stiffness were smaller in the LEGATR than in the LEGNOR. The AT negative mechanical work did not show any significant differences between both legs. However, positive works were significantly lower in the LEGATR than in the LEGNOR. Electromyogram patterns in both soleus and tibialis anterior muscles clearly differed after ground contact for the LEGATR and the LEGNOR.


These results suggest that the repaired ruptured AT can be compliant and have insufficient Young’s modulus, which can influence mechanical responses in muscle activities. The modulation of agonist–antagonist muscle activities corresponding to the different levels of stiffness between the LEGATR and the LEGNOR may not be fully functioning during the pre-activation phase.


Achilles Tendon Medial Gastrocnemius Ground Contact Pennation Angle Positive Work 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V. Komi, and Masaki Ishikawa have no conflicts of interest.


This work was supported by Japan Society for Promotion of Science (KAKENHI) Grant Numbers 26702026 and 15KK0261.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Sport and Exercise SciencesOsaka University of Health and Sport SciencesOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Riseisha College of Medicine and SportOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Likes Research CenterUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

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