Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 917–941 | Cite as

Chronic Adaptations to Eccentric Training: A Systematic Review

  • Jamie DouglasEmail author
  • Simon Pearson
  • Angus Ross
  • Mike McGuigan
Systematic Review



Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations.


The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training.


Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO. Full journal articles investigating the long-term (≥4 weeks) effects of eccentric training in healthy (absence of injury or illness during the 4 weeks preceding the training intervention), adult (17–35 years), human participants were selected for the systematic review. A total of 40 studies conformed to these criteria.


Eccentric training elicits greater improvements in muscle strength, although in a largely mode-specific manner. Superior enhancements in power and stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function have also been reported. Eccentric training is at least as effective as other modalities in increasing muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), while the pattern of hypertrophy appears nuanced and increased CSA may occur longitudinally within muscle (i.e. the addition of sarcomeres in series). There appears to be a preferential increase in the size of type II muscle fibres and the potential to exert a unique effect upon fibre type transitions. Qualitative and quantitative changes in tendon tissue that may be related to the magnitude of strain imposed have also been reported with eccentric training.


Eccentric training is a potent stimulus for enhancements in muscle mechanical function, and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) morphological and architectural adaptations. The inclusion of eccentric loads not constrained by concentric strength appears to be superior to traditional resistance training in improving variables associated with strength, power and speed performance.


Motor Unit Resistance Training Eccentric Exercise Eccentric Contraction Concentric Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross and Mike McGuigan declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    McGuigan MR, Wright GA, Fleck SJ. Strength training for athletes: does it really help sports performance? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7:2–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beattie K, Kenny IC, Lyons M, et al. The effects of strength training on performance in endurance athletes. Sports Med. 2014;44:845–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 1. Biological basis of maximal power production. Sports Med. 2011;41(1):17–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lindstedt SL, LaStayo PC, Reich TE. When active muscles lengthen: properties and consequences of eccentric contractions. News Physiol Sci. 2001;16:256–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hortobagyi T, Katch F. Eccentric and concentric torque velocity relationships during arm flexion and extension: influence of strength level. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1990;60:395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogt M, Hoppeler HH. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014;116(11):1446–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Isner-Horobeti M, Dufour SP, Vautravers P, et al. Eccentric exercise training: modalities, applications and perspectives. Sports Med. 2013;43:483–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roig M, O’Brien K, Kirk G, et al. The effects of eccentric versus concentric resistance training on muscle strength and mass in healthy adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(8):556–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(4):264–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ben-Sira D, Ayalon A, Tavi M. The effect of different types of strength training on concentric strength in women. J Strength Cond Res. 1995;9(3):143–8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blazevich AJ, Cannavan D, Coleman DR, et al. Influence of concentric and eccentric resistance training on architectural adaptation in human quadriceps muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103(5):1565–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brandenburg JP, Docherty D. The effects of accentuated eccentric loading on strength, muscle hypertrophy, and neural adaptations in trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Colliander EB, Tesch PA. Effects of eccentric and concentric muscle actions in resistance training. Acta Physiol Scand. 1990;140(1):31–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Colliander EB, Tesch PA. Effects of detraining following short term resistance training on eccentric and concentric muscle strength. Acta Physiol Scand. 1992;144(1):23–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellenbecker TS, Davies GJ, Rowinski MJ. Concentric versus eccentric isokinetic strengthening of the rotator cuff. Objective data versus functional test. Am J Sports Med. 1988;16(1):64–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    English K, Loehr J, Lee S, et al. Early-phase musculoskeletal adaptations to different levels of eccentric resistance after 8 weeks of lower body training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(11):2263–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD. The effects of eccentric and concentric training at different velocities on muscle hypertrophy. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:578–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Farup J, Rahbek SK, Riis S, et al. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2014(117):898–909.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Friedmann-Bette B, Bauer T, Kinscherf R, et al. Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(4):821–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Godard MP, Wygand JW, Carpinelli RN, et al. Effects of accentuated eccentric resistance training on concentric knee extensor strength. J Strength Cond Res. 1998;12(1):26–9.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hawkins SA, Schroeder ET, Wiswell RA, et al. Eccentric muscle action increases site-specific osteogenic response. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(9):1287–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hortobágyi T, Hill JP, Houmard JA, et al. Adaptive responses to muscle lengthening and shortening in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;80(3):765–72.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hortobágyi T, Dempsey L, Fraser D, et al. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fibre size and myofibrillar gene expression after immobilization and retraining in humans. J Physiol. 2000;524(Pt 1):293–304.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaminski TW, Wabbersen CV, Murphy RM. Concentric versus enhanced eccentric hamstring strength training: clinical implications. J Athletic Train. 1998;33(3):216–21.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Komi PV, Buskirk ER. Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics. 1972;15(4):417–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Malliaras P, Kamal B, Nowell A, et al. Patellar tendon adaptation in relation to load-intensity and contraction type. J Biomech. 2013;46(11):1893–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miller LE, Pierson LM, Nickols-Richardson SM, et al. Knee extensor and flexor torque development with concentric and eccentric isokinetic training. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2006;77(1):58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mont MA, Cohen DB, Campbell KR, et al. Isokinetic concentric versus eccentric training of shoulder rotators with functional evaluation of performance enhancement in elite tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22(4):513–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moore D, Young M, Phillips S. Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(4):1587–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nickols-Richardson SM, Miller LE, Wootten DF, et al. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(6):789–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vikne H, Refsnes PE, Ekmark M, et al. Muscular performance after concentric and eccentric exercise in trained men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(10):1770–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yarrow JF, Borsa PA, Borst SE, et al. Early-phase neuroendocrine responses and strength adaptations following eccentric-enhanced resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1205–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blazevich AJ, Horne S, Cannavan D, et al. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps. Muscle Nerve. 2008;38:1133–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gross M, Lüthy F, Kroell J, et al. Effects of eccentric cycle ergometry in alpine skiers. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(8):572–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    LaStayo PC, Reich TE, Urquhart M, et al. Chronic eccentric exercise: improvements in muscle strength can occur with little demand for oxygen. Am J Physiol. 1999;276(2):R611–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    LaStayo PC, Pierotti DJ, Pifer J, et al. Eccentric ergometry: increases in locomotor muscle size and strength at low training intensities. Am J Physiol. 2000;278(5):R1282–8.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Franchi MV, Atherton PJ, Reeves ND, et al. Architectural, functional and molecular responses to concentric and eccentric loading in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol. 2014;210:642–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Duncan PW, Chandler JM, Cavanaugh DK, et al. Mode and speed specificity of eccentric and concentric exercise training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1989;11(2):70–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Higbie EJ, Cureton KJ, Warren GL, et al. Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;81(5):2173–81.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Seger JY, Arvidsson B, Thorstensson A. Specific effects of eccentric and concentric training on muscle strength and morphology in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1998;79(1):49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tomberlin JP, Basford JR, Schwen EE, et al. Comparative study of isokinetic eccentric and concentric quadriceps training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1991;14(1):31–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Spurway NC. The effect of strength training on the apparent inhibition of eccentric force production in voluntary activated human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82:374–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barstow IK, Bishop MD, Kaminski TW. Is enhanced-eccentric resistance training superior to traditional training for increasing elbow flexor strength? J Sport Sci Med. 2003;2:62–9.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD. The effect of eccentric training at different velocities on cross-education. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(6):570–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hortobagyi T, Lambert NJ, Hill JP. Greater cross education following training with muscle lengthening than shortening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(1):107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elmer S, Hahn S, McAllister P, et al. Improvements in multi-joint leg function following chronic eccentric exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;22(5):653–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu C, Chen CS, Ho WH, et al. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(6):1479–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, et al. Neural inhibition during maximal eccentric and concentric quadriceps contraction: effects of resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2000(89):2249–57.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vangsgaard S, Taylor JL, Hansen EA, et al. Changes in H reflex and neuromechanical properties of the trapezius muscle after 5 weeks of eccentric training: a randomized controlled trial. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2014(116):1623–31.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pensini M, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. Central versus peripheral adaptations following eccentric resistance training. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23:567–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beltman JGM, Sargeant AJ, van Mechelen W, et al. Voluntary activation level and muscle fiber recruitment of human quadriceps during lengthening contractions. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;97(2):619–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Duchateau J, Baudry S. Insights into the neural control of eccentric contractions. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014;116(11):1418–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Duclay J, Martin A, Robbe A, et al. Spinal reflex plasticity during maximal dynamic contractions after eccentric training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(4):722–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Aagaard P. Training-induced changes in neural function. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(2):61–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988;20(5):S135–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Aagaard P. Neural adaptations to resistance exercise. In: Cardinale M, Newton R, Nosaka K, editors. Strength and conditioning: biological principles and practical applications. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011. p. 105–24.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Van Cutsem M, Duchateau J, Hainaut K. Changes in single motor unit behaviour contribute to the increase in contraction speed after dynamic training in humans. J Physiol. 1998;513(1):295–305.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behaviour of human motor units. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2006(101):1766–75.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Papadopoulos C, Theodosiou K, Bogdanis GC, et al. Multiarticular isokinetic high-load eccentric training induces large increases in eccentric and concentric strength and jumping performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2680–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Changes in the eccentric phase contribute to improved stretch-shorten cycle performance after training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(9):1731–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cook CJ, Beaven CM, Kilduff LP. Three weeks of eccentric training combined with overspeed exercises enhances power and running speed performance gains in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(5):1280–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    de Hoyo M, Pozzo M, Sanudo B, et al. Effects of a 10-week in-season eccentric-overload training program on muscle-injury prevention and performance in junior elite soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10:46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bojsen-Moller J, Magnusson SP, Rasmussen LR, et al. Muscle performance during maximal isometric and dynamic contractions is influenced by the stiffness of the tendinous structures. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2005(99):986–94.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Andersen LL, Aagaard P. Influence of maximal muscle strength and intrinsic muscle contractile properties on contractile rate of force development. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96:46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Oliveira AS, Corvino RB, Caputo F, et al. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(2):199–205.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bottinelli R, Canepari M, Pellegrino MA, et al. Force-velocity properties of human skeletal muscle fibres: myosin heavy chain isoform and temperature dependence. J Physiol. 1996;495(2):573–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bottinelli R, Pellegrino MA, Canepari M, et al. Specific contributions of various muscle fibre types to human muscle performance: an in vitro study. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1999;9:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Andersen LL, Andersen JL, Zebis MK, et al. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:162–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    de Oliveira FBD, Rizatto GF, Denadai BS. Are early and late rate of force development differently influenced by fast-velocity resistance training. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2013;33:282–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tillin NA, Pain MTG, Folland JP. Short-term training for explosive strength causes neural and mechanical adaptations. Exp Physiol. 2012;97(5):630–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Leong CH, McDermott WJ, Elmer SJ, et al. Chronic eccentric cycling improves quadriceps muscle structure and maximum cycling power. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35:559–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Farup J, Rahbek SK, Vendelbo MH, et al. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24:788–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rahbek SK, Farup J, Moller AB, et al. Effects of divergent resistance exercise contraction mode and dietary supplementation type on anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy. Amino Acids. 2014;46(10):2377–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldspink G, Harridge S. Cellular and molecular aspects of adaptation in skeletal muscle. In: Komi PV, editor. Strength and power in sport. Volume III encyclopaedia of sports medicine. Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. Osney Mead: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2003. p. 231–51.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Coffey VG, Hawley JA. The molecular bases of training adaptation. Sports Med. 2007;37(9):737–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schoenfeld BJ. The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(10):2857–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Eliasson J, Elfegoun T, Nilsson J, et al. Maximal lengthening contractions increase p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle in the absence of nutritional supply. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Toigo M, Boutellier U. New fundamental resistance exercise determinants of molecular and cellular muscle adaptations. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:643–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miller MK, Bang ML, Witt CC, et al. The muscle ankyrin repeat proteins: CARP, ankrd2/Arpp and DARP as a family of titin filament-based stress response molecules. J Mol Biol. 2003;333:951–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kumar A, Chaudhry I, Reid MB, et al. Distinct signalling pathways are activated in response to mechanical stress applied axially and transversely to skeletal muscle fibers. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(48):46493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical adaptations. J Physiol. 2001;537:333–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Baroni BM, Geremia JM, Rodrigues R, et al. Muscle architecture adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training: rectus femoris vs. vastus lateralis. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48:498–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Potier TG, Alexander CM, Seynnes OR. Effects of eccentric strength training on biceps femoris muscle architecture and knee joint range of movement. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:939–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Seynnes OR, de Boer M, Narici MV. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2007(102):368–73.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Duclay J, Martin A, Duclay A, et al. Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:819–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schoenfeld BJ. Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy? J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(5):1441–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hyldahl RD, Olson T, Welling T, et al. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise. Front Physiol. 2014;5(485):1–11.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Crescioli C, Sottili M, Bonini P, et al. Inflammatory response in human skeletal muscle cells: CXCL10 as a potential therapeutic agent. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:139–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Burzyn D, Kuswanto W, Kolodin D, et al. A special population of regulatory T cells potentiates muscle repair. Cell. 2013;155(6):1282–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hollander DB, Kraemer RR, Kilpatrick MW, et al. Maximal eccentric and concentric strength discrepancies between young men and women for dynamic resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Prilutsky BI. Eccentric muscle action in sport and exercise. In: Zatsiorsky VM, editor. Biomechanics in sport. Volume IX encyclopaedia of sports medicine. Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. Osney Mead: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2000. p. 56–86.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chapman D, Newton M, Sacco P, et al. Greater muscle damage induced by fast versus slow velocity eccentric exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:591–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McHugh MP, Tetro DT. Changes in the relationship between joint angle and torque production associated with the repeated bout effect. J Sport Sci. 2003;21:927–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shepstone TN, Tang JE, Dallaire S, et al. Short-term high- vs. low-velocity isokinetic lengthening training results in greater hypertrophy of the elbow flexors in young men. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2005(98):1768–76.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Baroni BM, Stocchero CMA, do Espírito Santo RC, et al. The effect of contraction type on muscle strength, work and fatigue in maximal isokinetic exercise. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2011;19(3):215–20.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Horstmann T, Mayer F, Maschmann J, et al. Metabolic reaction after concentric and eccentric endurance-exercise of the knee and ankle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(5):791–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2016(121):129–38.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sudo M, Ando S, Poole DC, et al. Blood flow restriction prevents muscle damage but not protein synthesis signalling following eccentric contractions. Physiol Rep. 2015;3(7):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Campos GER, Luecke TJ, Wendeln HK, et al. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;88:50–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Raue U, Terpstra B, Williamson DL, et al. Effects of short-term concentric vs. eccentric resistance training on single muscle fiber MHC distribution in humans. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:339–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Paddon-Jones D, Leveritt M, Lonergan A, et al. Adaptation to chronic eccentric exercise in humans: the influence of contraction velocity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85:466–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Andersen JL, Aagaard P. Myosin heavy chain IIx overshoot in human skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2000;23:1095–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Staron RS, Johnson P. Myosin polymorphism and differential expression in adult human skeletal muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1993;106B(3):463–75.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Andersen JL, Mohr T, Biering-Sorensen F, et al. Myosin heavy chain isoform transformation in single fibres from m. vastus lateralis in spinal cord injured individuals: effects of long-term functional electrical stimulation (FES). Pflügers Arch. 1996;431:513–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Friedmann B, Kinscherf R, Vorwald S, et al. Muscular adaptations to computer-guided strength training with eccentric overload. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182:77–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cermak NM, Snijders T, McKay BR, et al. Eccentric exercise increases satellite cell content in type II muscle fibers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(2):230–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tannerstedt J, Apró W, Blomstrand E. Maximal lengthening contractions induce different signalling responses in the type I and type II fibers of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2009(106):1412–8.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mahieu NN, McNair P, Cools A, et al. Effects of eccentric training on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):117–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ohberg L, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:8–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Arampatzis A, Karamanidis K, Albracht K. Adaptational responses of the human Achilles tendon by modulation of the applied cyclic strain magnitude. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2743–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pousson M, Van Hoecke J, Goubel F. Changes in elastic characteristics of human muscle induced by eccentric exercise. J Biomech. 1990;23(4):343–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morrissey D, Roskilly A, Twycross-Lewis R, et al. The effect of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25:238–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Alfredson H, Pietila T, Jonsson P, et al. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(3):360–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Magnusson SP, Narici MV, Maganaris CN, et al. Human tendon behaviour and adaptation, in vivo. J Physiol. 2008;586(1):71–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Miller BF, Olesen JL, Hansen M, et al. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise. J Physiol. 2005;567(3):1021–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Foure A, Nordez A, Cornu C. Plyometric training effects on Achilles tendon stiffness and dissipative properties. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2010(109):849–54.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kubo K, Morimoto M, Komuro T, et al. Effects of plyometric and weight training on muscle-tendon complex and jump performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1801–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Magnusson SP, Kjaer M. Region-specific differences in Achilles tendon cross-sectional area in runners and non-runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90:549–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    McHugh MP. Recent advances in the understanding of the repeated bout effect: the protective effect against muscle damage from a single bout of eccentric exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(2):88–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamie Douglas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Simon Pearson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Angus Ross
    • 2
  • Mike McGuigan
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ)Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.High Performance Sport New Zealand (HPSNZ), AUT MillenniumAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Queensland Academy of SportNathanAustralia
  4. 4.School of Medical and Health SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations