Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention

Abstract

Background

Several studies have suggested that psychosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation.

Objectives

The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interventions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention).

Methods

Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention.

Results

The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups.

Conclusion

The results support the model’s suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes.

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Fig. 1
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Notes

  1. 1.

    None of the studies in the meta-analyses had data that were normalized for exposure time or included specific calculations for specific types of injuries.

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Correspondence to Andreas Ivarsson.

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Andreas Ivarsson, Urban Johnson, Mark Andersen, Ulrika Tranaeus, Andreas Stenling, and Magnus Lindwall declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

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Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U., Andersen, M.B. et al. Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention. Sports Med 47, 353–365 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0578-x

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Keywords

  • Life Event Stress
  • Injury Rate
  • Injury Prevention
  • Injury Risk
  • Sport Injury