Sports Medicine

, Volume 46, Issue 11, pp 1689–1697

Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Brad J. Schoenfeld
  • Dan Ogborn
  • James W. Krieger
Systematic Review

DOI: 10.1007/s40279-016-0543-8

Cite this article as:
Schoenfeld, B.J., Ogborn, D. & Krieger, J.W. Sports Med (2016) 46: 1689. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0543-8

Abstract

Background

A number of resistance training (RT) program variables can be manipulated to maximize muscular hypertrophy. One variable of primary interest in this regard is RT frequency. Frequency can refer to the number of resistance training sessions performed in a given period of time, as well as to the number of times a specific muscle group is trained over a given period of time.

Objective

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of resistance training frequency on hypertrophic outcomes.

Methods

Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) were an experimental trial published in an English-language refereed journal; (2) directly compared different weekly resistance training frequencies in traditional dynamic exercise using coupled concentric and eccentric actions; (3) measured morphologic changes via biopsy, imaging, circumference, and/or densitometry; (4) had a minimum duration of 4 weeks; and (5) used human participants without chronic disease or injury. A total of ten studies were identified that investigated RT frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined.

Results

Analysis using binary frequency as a predictor variable revealed a significant impact of training frequency on hypertrophy effect size (P = 0.002), with higher frequency being associated with a greater effect size than lower frequency (0.49 ± 0.08 vs. 0.30 ± 0.07, respectively). Statistical analyses of studies investigating training session frequency when groups are matched for frequency of training per muscle group could not be carried out and reliable estimates could not be generated due to inadequate sample size.

Conclusions

When comparing studies that investigated training muscle groups between 1 to 3 days per week on a volume-equated basis, the current body of evidence indicates that frequencies of training twice a week promote superior hypertrophic outcomes to once a week. It can therefore be inferred that the major muscle groups should be trained at least twice a week to maximize muscle growth; whether training a muscle group three times per week is superior to a twice-per-week protocol remains to be determined.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brad J. Schoenfeld
    • 1
  • Dan Ogborn
    • 2
  • James W. Krieger
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health ScienceLehman CollegeBronxUSA
  2. 2.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Weightology, LLCIssaquahUSA

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