Sports Medicine

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1059–1066 | Cite as

Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players

  • Paul J. ReadEmail author
  • Jon L. Oliver
  • Mark B. A. De Ste Croix
  • Gregory D. Myer
  • Rhodri S. Lloyd
Review Article


Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Medial Collateral Ligament Soccer Player Injury Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article. One author (Gregory Myer) would like to acknowledge funding support from National Institutes of Health Grants R21-AR065068.

Conflicts of interest

Paul Read, Jon Oliver, Mark de Ste Croix, Gregory Myer and Rhodri Lloyd declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul J. Read
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jon L. Oliver
    • 2
    • 7
  • Mark B. A. De Ste Croix
    • 3
  • Gregory D. Myer
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 8
  • Rhodri S. Lloyd
    • 2
    • 7
  1. 1.School of Sport, Health and Applied ScienceSt Mary’s UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Youth Physical Development Unit, School of SportCardiff Metropolitan UniversityCardiffUK
  3. 3.Exercise and Sport Research Centre, School of Sport and ExerciseUniversity of GloucestershireGloucesterUK
  4. 4.Division of Sports MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery, College of MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  6. 6.The Micheli Center for Sports Injury PreventionBostonUSA
  7. 7.Sport Performance Research Institute, New Zealand (SPRINZ)AUT UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  8. 8.Department of OrthopaedicsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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