Sports Medicine

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 783–792 | Cite as

Skeletal Muscle Loading Changes its Regenerative Capacity

  • Eduardo TeixeiraEmail author
  • José Alberto Duarte
Review Article


Whenever skeletal muscle insults occur, both by functional impositions or other injury forms, skeletal muscle repair (SMR) follows. The SMR succeeds when proper skeletal muscle regeneration and limited fibrosis ensue. Muscle fiber replenishment by fibrosis negatively affects the tissue quality and functionality and, furthermore, represents the worst post-injury phenotypic adaptation. Acute muscle injury treatment commonly follows the RICE method—rest, ice, compression, and elevation. This immediate immobilization seems to be beneficial to preserving the tissue structure and avoiding further destruction; however, if these interventions are delayed, the risk of muscle atrophy and its deleterious-related effects increase, with resultant impaired SMR. Moreover, a growing body of evidence shows positive skeletal muscle loading (SML) effects during SMR since it seems to effectively increase satellite cells (SCs) in their activation, proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation capacities. Additionally, recent data show that SML may also influence the functions of other participants in SMR, compelling SMR to achieve less fibrotic accretion and accelerated muscle mass recovery. Moreover, given the SML effects on SCs, it is plausible to consider that these can increase the myofibers’ basal myogenic potential. Thus, it seems relevant to scrutinize the possible acute and chronic SML therapeutic and prophylactic effects regarding the SMR process.


Resistance Training Satellite Cell Resistance Exercise Vastus Lateralis Muscle Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


The Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT; UID/DTP/00617/2013). Eduardo Teixeira benefits from an FCT grant (SFRH/BD/76740/2011).

Conflict of interest

Eduardo Teixeira and José Alberto Duarte declare that they have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigação em Atividade Física e Saúde, Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto (CIAFEL-FADEUP)PortoPortugal

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