Although low- to moderate-intensity exercise has well-known cardiovascular benefits, it has been increasingly suggested that prolonged strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) could have potential deleterious cardiac effects. In effect, the term ‘cardiac overuse injury’ (or ‘over-exercise’) has been recently reported to group all the possible deleterious cardiac consequences of repeated exposure to SEE or ‘over-exercise’. In this article, we provide a balanced overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of SEE from a cardiological point of view.
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The authors are grateful to Prof. Benjamin Levine for his critical review of the manuscript.
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.
Conflicts of interest
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Laura M. Pérez, Michael Joyner, Herbert Löllgen, and Alejandro Lucia declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
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Sanchis-Gomar, F., Pérez, L.M., Joyner, M.J. et al. Endurance Exercise and the Heart: Friend or Foe?. Sports Med 46, 459–466 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0434-4
- Sudden Cardiac Death
- Right Ventricle
- Late Gadolinium Enhancement
- Standard Mortality Ratio
- Right Atrium