Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 1511–1522 | Cite as

A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes’ Food Choices

  • Karen L. BirkenheadEmail author
  • Gary Slater
Review Article


Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete’s training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.


Food Choice Rest Metabolic Rate Elite Athlete Dietary Restraint Nutrition Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Wansink B, Sobal J. Mindless eating: the 200 daily food decisions we overlook. Environ Behav. 2007;39(1):106–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sobal J, Bisogni CA. Constructing food choice decisions. Ann Behav Med. 2009;38:S37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Devine CM. A life course perspective: understanding food choices in time, social location, and history. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005;37(3):121–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jaeger SR, Bava CM, Worch T, et al. The food choice kaleidoscope. A framework for structured description of product, place and person as sources of variation in food choices. Appetite. 2011;56(2):412–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parraga IM. Determinants of food consumption. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90(5):661–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Furst T, Connors M, Bisogni CA, et al. Food choice: a conceptual model of the process. Appetite. 1996;26(3):247–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smart LR, Bisogni CA. Personal food systems of male college hockey players. Appetite. 2001;37(1):57–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Long D, Perry C, Unruh SA, et al. Personal food systems of male collegiate football players: a grounded theory investigation. J Athl Train. 2011;46(6):688–95.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mello JA, Gans KM, Risica PM, et al. How is food insecurity associated with dietary behaviors? An analysis with low-income, ethnically diverse participants in a nutrition intervention study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(12):1906–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Worsley A. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption: can nutrition knowledge change food behaviour? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(Suppl 3):S579–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Contento IR, Williams SS, Michela JL, et al. Understanding the food choice process of adolescents in the context of family and friends. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38(5):575–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):709–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robins A, Hetherington MM. A comparison of pre-competition eating patterns in a group of non-elite triathletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(4):442–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ono M, Kennedy E, Reeves S, et al. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach. Appetite. 2012;58(1):98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A, et al. Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Ann Behav Med. 2004;27(2):107–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Byrne S, McLean N. Elite athletes: effects of the pressure to be thin. J Sci Med Sport. 2002;5(2):80–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson C, Petrie TA. Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among NCAA division I female collegiate gymnasts and swimmers. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2012;83(1):120–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bublitz MG, Peracchio LA, Block LG. Why did I eat that? Perspectives on food decision making and dietary restraint. J Consum Psychol. 2010;20(3):239–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen DA, Babey SH. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices. Obes Rev. 2012;13(9):766–79.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Castro JM. Socio-cultural determinants of meal size and frequency. Br J Nutr. 1997;77(Suppl 1):S39–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lamont M, Kennelly M. I can’t do everything! Competing priorities as constraints in triathlon event travel careers. Tour Rev Int. 2011;14:85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Landers GJ, Ong KB, Ackland TR, et al. Kinanthropometric differences between 1997 World championship junior elite and 2011 national junior elite triathletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(5):444–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bisogni CA, Jastran M, Shen L, et al. A biographical study of food choice capacity: standards, circumstances, and food management skills. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005;37(6):284–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bisogni CA, Falk LW, Madore E, et al. Dimensions of everyday eating and drinking episodes. Appetite. 2007;48(2):218–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Travis S, Bisogni C, Ranzenhofer L. A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating. Appetite. 2010;54(1):108–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Winter Falk L, Bisogni CA, Sobal J. Food choice processes of older adults: a qualitative investigation. J Nutr Educ. 1996;28(5):257–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marshall D, Bell R. Meal construction: exploring the relationship between eating occasion and location. Food Qual Prefer. 2003;14(1):53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vartanian LR, Herman CP, Wansink B. Are we aware of the external factors that influence our food intake? Health Psychol. 2008;27(5):533–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herman CP, Roth DA, Polivy J. Effects of the presence of others on food intake: a normative interpretation. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(6):873–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jastran MM, Bisogni CA, Sobal J, et al. Eating routines. Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective. Appetite. 2009;52(1):127–36.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bisogni CA, Connors M, Devine CM, et al. Who we are and how we eat: a qualitative study of identities in food choice. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002;34(3):128–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lamont-Mills A, Christensen SA. Athletic identity and its relationship to sport participation levels. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(6):472–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lamont M, Kennelly M, Wilson E. Competing priorities as constraints in event travel careers. Tour Manag. 2012;33(5):1068–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heaney S, O’Connor H, Naughton G, et al. Towards an understanding of the barriers to good nutrition for elite athletes. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2008;3(3):391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Steptoe A, Pollard TM, Wardle J. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire. Appetite. 1995;25(3):267–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prescott J, Young O, O’Neill L, et al. Motives for food choice: a comparison of consumers from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and New Zealand. Food Qual Prefer. 2002;13(7–8):489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Honkanen P, Frewer L. Russian consumers’ motives for food choice. Appetite. 2009;52(2):363–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Crossley ML, Nazir M. Motives underlying food choice: an investigation of dental students. Braz J Oral Sci. 2002;1(1):27–33.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Share M, Stewart-Knox B. Determinants of food choice in Irish adolescents. Food Qual Prefer. 2012;25(1):57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lockie S, Lyons K, Lawrence G, et al. Eating ‘green’: motivations behind organic food consumption in Australia. Sociol Ruralis. 2002;42(1):23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lowe MR, Butryn ML. Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite? Physiol Behav. 2007;91(4):432–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hoefling A, Strack F. Hunger induced changes in food choice. When beggars cannot be choosers even if they are allowed to choose. Appetite. 2010;54(3):603–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    King NA, Burley VJ, Blundell JE. Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48(10):715–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Deighton K, Zahra JC, Stensel DJ. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state. Appetite. 2012;58(3):946–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Broom DR, Batterham RL, King JA, et al. Influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin, and peptide YY in healthy males. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296(1):R29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Martins C, Morgan LM, Bloom SR, et al. Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. J Endocrinol. 2007;193(2):251–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shorten AL, Wallman KE, Guelfi KJ. Acute effect of environmental temperature during exercise on subsequent energy intake in active men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    King NA, Tremblay A, Blundell JE. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(8):1076–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Deighton K, Barry R, Connon CE, et al. Appetite, gut hormone and energy intake responses to low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(5):1147–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aeberli I, Erb A, Spliethoff K, et al. Disturbed eating at high altitude: influence of food preferences, acute mountain sickness and satiation hormones. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52(2):625–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hagobian TA, Sharoff CG, Stephens BR, et al. Effects of exercise on energy-regulating hormones and appetite in men and women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296(2):R233–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    White LJ, Dressendorfer RH, Holland E, et al. Increased caloric intake soon after exercise in cold water. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(1):38–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    King JA, Wasse LK, Stensel DJ. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake. Appetite. 2013;61:45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Caudwell P, Gibbons C, Hopkins M, et al. The influence of physical activity on appetite control: an experimental system to understand the relationship between exercise-induced energy expenditure and energy intake. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70(2):171–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Blundell JE, Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, et al. Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(3):651–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Melzer K, Kayser B, Saris WHM, et al. Effects of physical activity on food intake. Clin Nutr. 2005;24(6):885–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McKiernan F, Hollis JH, McCabe GP, et al. Thirst-drinking, hunger-eating; tight coupling? J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(3):486–90.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pettersson S. Pipping Ekström M, Berg CM. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete. Appetite. 2012;59(2):234–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loucks AB. Energy balance and body composition in sports and exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(1):1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mayer J. Glucostatic mechanism of regulation of food intake. 1953. Obes Res. 1996;4(5):493–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obes Rev. 2005;6(2):133–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Flatt JP. Dietary fat, carbohydrate balance, and weight maintenance: effects of exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45(1 Suppl):296–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tremblay A, Plourde G, Despres JP, et al. Impact of dietary fat content and fat oxidation on energy intake in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49(5):799–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Flatt JP. The difference in the storage capacities for carbohydrate and for fat, and its implications in the regulation of body weight. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;499:104–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hopkins M, Jeukendrup A, King NA, et al. The relationship between substrate metabolism, exercise and appetite control does glycogen availability influence the motivation to eat, energy intake or food choice? Sports Med. 2011;41(6):507–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Flatt JP. Glycogen levels and obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20(Suppl 2):S1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gosby AK, Conigrave AD, Lau NS, et al. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25929.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Martens EA, Lemmens SG, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):86–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG, Murgatroyd PR, et al. Covert manipulation of dietary fat and energy density: effect on substrate flux and food intake in men eating ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(2):316–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Snitker S, Larson PE, Tataranni A, et al. Ad libitum food intake in humans after manipulation of glycogen stores. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(4):941–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Galgani JE, De Jonge L, Most MM, et al. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans. Int J Obes. 2010;34(5):886–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shetry PS, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, et al. Alterations in fuel selection and voluntary food intake in response to isoenergetic manipulation of glycogen stores in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(4):534–43.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sparti A, Windhauser MM, Champagne CM, et al. Effect of an acute reduction in carbohydrate intake on subsequent food intake in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(5):1144–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rumpler WV, Kramer M, Rhodes DG, et al. The impact of the covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake and the variability in daily food intake in nonobese men. Int J Obes. 2006;30(5):774–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Almeras N, Lavallee N, Despres JP, et al. Exercise and energy intake: effect of substrate oxidation. Physiol Behav. 1995;57(5):995–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Melby CL, Osterberg KL, Resch A, et al. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise on post-exercise substrate oxidation and energy intake. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12(3):294–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kissileff HR, Pi-Sunyer FX, Segal K, et al. Acute effects of exercise on food intake in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52(2):240–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate feeding during exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2008;8(2):77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Eckel RH, Hernandez TL, Bell ML, et al. Carbohydrate balance predicts weight and fat gain in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):803–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yang D, Liu Z, Yang H, et al. Acute effects of high-protein versus normal-protein isocaloric meals on satiety and ghrelin. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):493–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Marmonier C, Chapelot D, Louis-Sylvestre J. Effects of macronutrient content and energy density of snacks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal. Appetite. 2000;34(2):161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Griffioen-Roose S, Mars M, Siebelink E, et al. Protein status elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(1):32–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Garcia-Roves PM, Fernandez S, Rodriguez M, et al. Eating pattern and nutritional status of international elite flatwater paddlers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10(2):182–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Burke LM, Slater G, Broad EM, et al. Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite Australian athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13(4):521–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brooks RC, Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. The price of protein: combining evolutionary and economic analysis to understand excessive energy consumption. Obes Rev. 2010;11(12):887–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Martens EAP, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Protein diets, body weight loss and weight maintenance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014;17(1):75–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Galgani J, Ravussin E. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation. Int J Obes. 2008;32(Suppl 7):S109–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, et al. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(1):126–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Roy HJ, Lovejoy JC, Keenan MJ, et al. Substrate oxidation and energy expenditure in athletes and nonathletes consuming isoenergetic high- and low-fat diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(3):405–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    King JA, Miyashita M, Wasse LK, et al. Influence of prolonged treadmill running on appetite, energy intake and circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin. Appetite. 2010;54(3):492–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Martins C, Kulseng B, King NA, et al. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(4):1609–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Blundell JE, Caudwell P, Gibbons C, et al. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5(5):608–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Caudwell P, Finlayson G, Gibbons C, et al. Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Blundell JE, Caudwell P, Gibbons C, et al. Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(3):445–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Weise CM, Hohenadel MG, Krakoff J, et al. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans. Int J Obes. 2014;38(2):243–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Johnstone AM, Murison SD, Duncan JS, et al. Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(5):941–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    O’Connor H, Olds T, Maughan RJ. Physique and performance for track and field events. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(Suppl 1):49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Long SJ, Hart K, Morgan LM. The ability of habitual exercise to influence appetite and food intake in response to high- and low-energy preloads in man. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(5):517–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    King NA, Horner K, Hills AP, et al. The interaction between exercise, appetite, and food intake: implications for weight control. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2013;7(4):265–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    King NA, Lluch A, Stubbs RJ, et al. High dose exercise does not increase hunger or energy intake in free living males. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51(7):478–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Glanz K, Basil M, Maibach E, et al. Why Americans eat what they do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98(10):1118–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Milošević J, Žeželj I, Gorton M, et al. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan countries. Appetite. 2012;58(1):205–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shannon C, Story M, Fulkerson JA, et al. Factors in the school cafeteria influencing food choices by high school students. J Sch Health. 2002;72(6):229–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Clark JE. Taste and flavour: their importance in food choice and acceptance. Proc Nutr Soc. 1998;57(4):639–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Eertmans A, Baeyens F, Van den Bergh O. Food likes and their relative importance in human eating behavior: review and preliminary suggestions for health promotion. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(4):443–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Connors M, Bisogni CA, Sobal J, et al. Managing values in personal food systems. Appetite. 2001;36(3):189–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Iglesias-Gutiérrez E, García-Rovés PM, García A, et al. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes’ dietary intake. Appetite. 2008;50(2–3):536–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pelly F, King T, O’Connor H. Factors influencing food choice of elite athletes at an international competition dining hall. In: 2nd Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science conference, 2006, Sydney, Australia; 2006.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sommer I, MacKenzie H, Venter C, et al. Factors influencing food choices of food-allergic consumers: findings from focus groups. Allergy. 2012;67(10):1319–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Black KE, Skidmore P, Brown RC. Case study: nutritional strategies of a cyclist with celiac disease during an ultraendurance race. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22(4):304–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Worme JD, Doubt TJ, Singh A, et al. Dietary patterns, gastrointestinal complaints, and nutrition knowledge of recreational triathletes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51(4):690–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pfeiffer B, Stellingwerff T, Hodgson AB, et al. Nutritional intake and gastrointestinal problems during competitive endurance events. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(2):344–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rehrer NJ, van Kemenade M, Meester W, et al. Gastrointestinal complaints in relation to dietary intake in triathletes. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992;2(1):48–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eertmans A, Victoir A, Vansant G, et al. Food-related personality traits, food choice motives and food intake: mediator and moderator relationships. Food Qual Prefer. 2005;16(8):714–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mai R, Hoffmann S. Taste lovers versus nutrition fact seekers: how health consciousness and self-efficacy determine the way consumers choose food products. J Consum Behav. 2012;11(4):316–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Nie C, Zepeda L. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption. Appetite. 2011;57(1):28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Steptoe A, Wardle J. Motivational factors as mediators of socioeconomic variations in dietary intake patterns. Psychol Health. 1999;14(3):391–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vartanian LR, Wharton CM, Green EB. Appearance vs. health motives for exercise and for weight loss. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;13(3):251–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    LaChausse RG. Motives of competitive and non-competitive cyclists. J Sport Behav. 2006;29(4):304–14.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lamont M, Kennelly M. A qualitative exploration of participant motives among committed amateur triathletes. Leis Sci. 2012;34(3):236–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Brown TD, O’Connor JP, Barkatsas AN. Instrumentation and motivations for organised cycling: the development of the cyclist motivation instrument (CMI). J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(2):211–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pollard TM, Steptoe A, Wardle J. Motives underlying healthy eating: using the food choice questionnaire to explain variation in dietary intake. J Biosoc Sci. 1998;30(2):165–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ree M, Riediger N, Moghadasian MH. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(11):1255–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Croll JK, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, et al. Adolescents involved in weight-related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sport-involved adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(5):709–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Parmenter K, Wardle J. Development of a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire for adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53(4):298–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wardle J, Parmenter K, Waller J. Nutrition knowledge and food intake. Appetite. 2000;34(3):269–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kolodinsky J, Harvey-Berino JR, Berlin L, et al. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(8):1409–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Heaney S, O’Connor H, Michael S, et al. Nutrition knowledge in athletes: a systematic review. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(3):248–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Spronk I, Kullen C, Burdon C, et al. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(10):1713–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Walsh M, Cartwright L, Corish C, et al. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(5):365–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Spendlove JK, Heaney SE, Gifford JA, et al. Evaluation of general nutrition knowledge in elite Australian athletes. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(12):1871–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Harrison J, Hopkins WG, MacFarlane DJ, et al. Nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of elite and non-elite athletes. Aust J Nutr Diet. 1991;48:124–7.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stunkard AJ, Messick S. The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(1):71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ward A, Mann T. Don’t mind if I do: disinhibited eating under cognitive load. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;78(4):753–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Forestell CA, Spaeth AM, Kane SA. To eat or not to eat red meat. A closer look at the relationship between restrained eating and vegetarianism in college females. Appetite. 2012;58(1):319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ashikali EM, Dittmar H. Body image and restrained eating in blind and sighted women: a preliminary study. Body Image. 2010;7(2):172–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Timko CA, Perone J. Rigid and flexible control of eating behavior and their relationship to dieting status. Eat Weight Disord. 2006;11(3):e90–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Meule A, Westenhöfer J, Kübler A. Food cravings mediate the relationship between rigid, but not flexible control of eating behavior and dieting success. Appetite. 2011;57(3):582–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Williams N, Leidy H, Flecker K, et al. Food attitudes in female athletes: association with menstrual cycle length. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(9):979–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Barrack MT, Rauh MJ, Barkai HS, et al. Dietary restraint and low bone mass in female adolescent endurance runners. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    DeBate RD, Wethington H, Sargent R. Sub-clinical eating disorder characteristics among male and female triathletes. Eat Weight Disord. 2002;7(3):210–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Landers GJ, Blanksby BA, Ackland TR, et al. Morphology and performance of world championship triathletes. Ann Hum Biol. 2000;27(4):387–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Knechtle B, Wirth A, Baumann B, et al. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female lronman triathletes. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2010;81(1):62–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Franchi M. Food choice: beyond the chemical content. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Finlayson G, Bryant E, Blundell JE, et al. Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food. Physiol Behav. 2009;97(1):62–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fitzgerald A, Heary C, Nixon E, et al. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation. Health Promot Int. 2010;25(3):289–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Boek S, Bianco-Simeral S, Chan K, et al. Gender and race are significant determinants of students’ food choices on a college campus. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012;44(4):372–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nogueira LAD, Da Costa THM. Nutrient intake and eating habits of triathletes on a Brazilian diet. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14(6):684–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Burke LM, Read RSD. Diet patterns of elite Australian male triathletes. Phys Sportsmed. 1987;15(2):140–55.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lindeman A. Eating and training habits of triathletes: a balancing act. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90(7):993–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    van’t Riet J, Sijtsema SJ, Dagevos H, et al. The importance of habits in eating behaviour. An overview and recommendations for future research. Appetite. 2011;57(3):585–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Holsten JE, Deatrick JA, Kumanyika S, et al. Children’s food choice process in the home environment. A qualitative descriptive study. Appetite. 2012;58(1):64–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Berthoud HR. Neural control of appetite: cross-talk between homeostatic and non-homeostatic systems. Appetite. 2004;43(3):315–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wansink B. Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:455–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pollard J, Kirk SFL, Cade JE. Factors affecting food choice in relation to fruit and vegetable intake: a review. Nutr Res Rev. 2002;15(2):373–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Devine CM, Connors M, Bisogni CA, et al. Life-course influences on fruit and vegetable trajectories: qualitative analysis of food choices. J Nutr Educ. 1998;30(6):361–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Mak AHN, Lumbers M, Eves A, et al. Factors influencing tourist food consumption. Int J Hosp Manag. 2012;31(3):928–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rozin P, Fischler C, Imada S, et al. Attitudes to food and the role of food in life in the USA, Japan, Flemish Belgium and France: possible implications for the diet-health debate. Appetite. 1999;33(2):163–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pieniak Z, Verbeke W, Vanhonacker F, et al. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Appetite. 2009;53(1):101–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nestle M, Wing R, Birch L, et al. Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(5 II):S50–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pelly F, O’Connor H, Denyer G, et al. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(4):340–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Burke LM, King C. Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Dolan E, O’Connor H, McGoldrick A, et al. Nutritional, lifestyle, and weight control practices of professional jockeys. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(8):791–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hanton S, Fletcher D, Coughlan G. Stress in elite sport performers: a comparative study of competitive and organizational stressors. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(10):1129–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Arnott I. How do the internal variables of the sport consumer affect the marketing of sports events: case study triathlon in the UK. Int Bus Res. 2008;1(3):3–21.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Steenhuis IHM, Waterlander WE, De Mul A. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(12):2220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, School of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of the Sunshine CoastMaroochydore, DCAustralia

Personalised recommendations