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Table 1 Description of studies

From: Incidence of Running-Related Injuries Per 1000 h of running in Different Types of Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

References, country of origin Study design (follow-up) Study population Baseline characteristics Musculoskeletal injury definition
Novice runners
 Bovens et al. [25], The Netherlands Prospective cohort study (81 weeks) 73 Novice runners with little or no running experience Age above 20 years. Only volunteers without persisting injuries were accepted. (58 men and 15 women) Any physical complaint developed in relation with running activities and causing restriction in running distance, speed, duration or frequency
 Bredeweg et al. [24], The Netherlands Randomised controlled trial (9 weeks plus additional 4 weeks for 211 runners) 362 (171+191) All participants had not been running on a regular basis in the previous 12 months Age range 18–65 years. No injury of the lower extremity within the preceding 3 months Any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or lower back causing restriction of running for at least a week
 Buist et al. [11], The Netherlands Prospective cohort study (8 weeks) 629 Runners who had signed up for 4-mile running event. 474 novice runners who either restarted running or had no running experience. 155 recreational runners Age above 18 years Any musculoskeletal pain of the lower limb or back causing a restriction of running for at least 1 day
 Buist et al. [20], The Netherlands Randomized controlled trial (8 and 13 weeks) 486 Novice runners who had not been running on a regular basis in the previous 12 monthsa Age range 18–65 years. No injury of the lower extremity within the preceding 3 months Any self-reported running-related musculoskeletal pain of the lower extremity or back causing a restriction of running for at least 1 week (three scheduled trainings)
 Nielsen et al. [26], Denmark Prospective cohort study (12 months) 930 Novice runners who had not been running on a regular basis in the previous 12 monthsa Healthy novice runners age range 18–65 years with no injury in the lower extremities or back 3 months preceding baseline investigation. Not participating in other sports for more than 4 h/week Any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back causing a restriction of running for at least 1 week
Recreational runners
 Jakobsen et al. [12], Denmark Randomised controlled trial (12 months) 41 Recreational long-distance runners. Had all taken part in marathon races and intended to take part in at least two marathons during the year of investigation 19 Men and 2 women aged 24–56. No runner had any symptoms or objective signs of overuse injury at the start of the investigation Any injury to the musculoskeletal system that was sustained during running and prevented training or competition
 Malisoux et al. [14], Luxembourg Prospective cohort study (22 weeks) 264 Recreational runners. Mean regularity of runningc in the last 12 months = 9.4–10.8 Healthy participants above 18 years old with any level of fitness A physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day
 Theisen et al. [15], Luxembourg Randomised controlled trial (5 months) 247 Recreational runners Healthy and uninjured leisure-time runners, aged above 18 years. Participants having more than 6 accumulated months of regular trainingb Any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day
 Van Mechelen et al. [28], The Netherlands Randomised controlled trial (16 weeks) 421 Recreational runners running at least 10 km/week all year-round Healthy, no current injury, not home from work at sick leave, not performing sport as a part of their profession Any injury that occurred as a result of running and caused one or more of the following: (1) the subject had to stop running, (2) the subject could not run on the next occasion, (3) the subject could not go to work the next day, (4) the subject needed medical attention, or (5) the subject suffered from pain or stiffness during 10 subsequent days while running
 Wen et al. [23], USA Prospective cohort study (32 weeks) MH group:108 recreational runners previously running a mean of 24.94 km/weekb. However 8.3 % of these were novice runners with no running experience Members of a running group with the purpose to prepare its members to run a marathon Answering yes to having had “injury or pain” to an anatomic part; answering yes to having had to stop training, slow pace, stop intervals, or otherwise having had to modify training; and a “gradual,” versus “immediate”, onset of the injury or a self-reported diagnosis that is generally considered an overuse injury
Ultra marathon runners
 Krabak et al. [21], USA Prospective cohort study (7 days) 396 Experienced runners who have completed marathon or ultraendurance events Age range 18–64 years A disability sustained by a study participant during the race, resulting in a medical encounter by the medical staff
Track and field athletes
 Bennell et al. [22], Australia Prospective cohort study (12 months) 95 Competitive track and field athletes (throwers and walkers excluded) Age range 17–26 years. Training at least three times a week, when uninjured Any musculoskeletal pain or injury that resulted from athletic training and caused alteration of normal training mode, duration, intensity or frequency for 1 week or more
 Lysholm et al. [19], Sweden Prospective cohort study (12 months) 60 Track and field athletes. Sprinters, middle-distance runners and longdistance/marathon runners running in club and competing Previous experience of training (7 h per week or more) varied between 1 and 32 years Any injuries that markedly hampered training or competition for at least 1 week
  1. MH mileage-hours
  2. a10km total in all training sessions in the previous 12 months
  3. bMiles were converted to km [17]
  4. cRegular training (at least once a week)