Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 881–891 | Cite as

The Effects of Repeated-Sprint Training on Field-Based Fitness Measures: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled and Non-Controlled Trials

  • Jonathan Taylor
  • Tom Macpherson
  • Iain Spears
  • Matthew Weston
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports.

Objective

Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. counter-movement jump, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint, repeated-sprint ability and high-intensity intermittent running performance.

Data Sources

The SPORTDiscus, PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched for original research articles. Search terms included ‘repeated-sprint training’, ‘sprint training’, ‘aerobic endurance’, ‘repeated-sprint ability’, ‘counter-movement jump’ and ‘sprint performance’.

Study Selection

Inclusion criteria included intervention consisting of a series of ≤10 s sprints with ≤60 s recovery; trained participants; intervention duration of 2–12 weeks; field-based fitness measures; running- or cycling-based intervention; published up to, and including, February 2014.

Data Extraction

Our final dataset included six trials for counter-movement jump (two controlled trials), eight trials for 10 m sprint, four trials for 20 m sprint (three controlled trials), two trials for 30 m sprint, eight trials for repeated-sprint ability and three trials for high-intensity intermittent running performance. Analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Uncertainty in the meta-analysed effect of repeated-sprint training was expressed as 95 % confidence limits (CL), along with the probability that the true value of the effect was trivial, beneficial or harmful. Magnitude-based inferences were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 standard deviations, respectively.

Results

Repeated-sprint training had a likely small beneficial effect in non-controlled counter-movement jump trials (effect size 0.33; 95 % CL ±0.30), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect in controlled trials (0.63; 95 % CL ±0.44). There was a very likely small beneficial effect on 10 m sprint time in non-controlled trials (−0.42; 95 % CL ±0.24), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect on 20 m sprint time in non-controlled (−0.49; 95 % CL ±0.46) and controlled (−0.65; 95 % CL ±0.61) trials. Repeated-sprint training had a possibly large beneficial effect on 30 m sprint performance in non-controlled trials (−1.01; 95 % CL ±0.93), with possibly moderate beneficial effects on repeated-sprint ability (−0.62; 95 % CL ±0.25) and high-intensity intermittent running performance (−0.61; 95 % CL ±0.54).

Conclusions

Repeated-sprint training can induce small to large improvements in power, speed, repeated-sprint ability and endurance, and may have relevance for training in team sports.

References

  1. 1.
    Faude O, Koch T, Meyer T. Straight sprinting is the most frequent action in goal situations in professional football. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(7):625–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Póvoas S, Seabra A, Ascensão A, et al. Physical and physiological demands of elite team handball. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(12):3365–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Austin DJ, Gabbett TJ, Jenkins DJ. Repeated high-intensity exercise in a professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(7):1898–904.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    King T, Jenkins D, Gabbett T. A time-motion analysis of professional rugby league match-play. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(3):213–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deutsch MU, Kearney GA, Rehrer NJ. Time-motion analysis of professional rugby union players during match-play. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(4):461–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stølen T, Chamari K, Castagna C, et al. Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Med. 2005;35(6):501–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spencer M, Lawerence S, Rechichi C, et al. Time-motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(9):843–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, et al. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):543–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Sports Med. 2008;38(1):37–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoffman JJ, Reed JP, Leitin K, et al. Repeated sprint, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(2):352–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fernandez-Fernandez J, Zimek R, Wiewelhove T, et al. High-intensity interval training vs. repeated-sprint training in tennis. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(1):53–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability—part II: recommendations for training. Sports Med. 2011;41(9):741–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchheit M, Mendez-Villanueva A, Delhomel G, et al. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(10):2715–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ferrari-Bravo D, Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, et al. Sprint vs. interval training in football. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29(8):668–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle—part 1: cardiopulmonary emphasis. Sports Med. 2013;43(5):313–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glaister M. Multiple-sprint work: methodological, physiological and experimental issues. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3(1):107–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):1025–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gaitanos GC, Williams C, Boobis LH, et al. Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1993;75(2):712–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balsom PD, Seger JY, Sjödin B, et al. Maximal-intensity intermittent exercise: effect of recovery duration. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13(7):528–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Balsom PD, Seger JY, Sjödin B, et al. Physiological responses to maximal intensity intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(2):144–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al. Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol. 2006;575(Pt 3):901–11.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100(6):2041–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nebil G, Zouhair F, Hatem B, et al. Effect of optimal cycling repeated-sprint combined with classical training on peak leg power in female soccer players. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2014;22:69–76.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suarez-Arrones L, Tous-Fajardo J, Nunez J, et al. Concurrent repeated-sprint and resistance training with superimposed vibrations in rugby players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;9(4):667–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Callaghan SJ, et al. Effects of sprint and plyometrics training on field sport acceleration technique. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(7):1790–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Schultz AB, et al. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(6):1539–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Serpiello FR, McKenna MJ, Stepto NK, et al. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint exercise: a novel multiple-set approach. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(4):669–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Amstrup T, et al. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability, and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:697–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Castagna C, et al. Validity of a repeated-sprint test for football. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29(11):899–905.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, et al. Progressive statistic for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ingebrigtsen J, Brochmann M, Castagna C, et al. Relationship between field performance tests in high-level soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(4):942–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deek JJ, et al. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Galvin HM, Cooke K, Sumners DP, et al. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:i74–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buchheit M, Millet G, Parisy A, et al. Supramaximal training and postexercise parasympathetic reactivation in adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):362–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nielsen JJ, et al. Effect of two different intense training regimens on skeletal muscle ion transport proteins and fatigue development. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(4):R1594–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dawson B, Fitzsimons M, Green S, et al. Changes in performance, muscle metabolites, enzymes and fibre types after short sprint training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998;78(2):163–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Los Arcos A, Yanci J, Mendiguchia J, et al. Short-term training effects of vertically and horizontally oriented exercises on neuromuscular performance in professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(3):480–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hoff J, Helgerud J. Endurance and strength training for soccer players: physiological considerations. Sports Med. 2004;34(3):165–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Macpherson T, Weston M. The effect of low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) on the development and subsequent maintenance of aerobic fitness in soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0075 (Epub 5 Sep).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weston M, Taylor KL, Batterham AM, et al. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials. Sports Med. 2014;44(7):1005–17.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, et al. Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1242–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rampinini E, Bishop D, Marcora SM, et al. Validity of simple field tests as indicators of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(3):228–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability—part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med. 2011;41(8):673–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buchheit M. Should we be recommending repeated sprints to improve repeated-sprint performance? Sports Med. 2012;42(2):169–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rodas G, Ventura JL, Cadefau JA, et al. A short training programme for the rapid improvement of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82(5):480–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McGill SM, Chaimberg JD, Frost DM, et al. Evidence of a double peak in muscle activation to enhance strike speed and force: an example with elite mixed martial arts fighters. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(2):348–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lieberman DE, Raichlen DA, Pontzer H, et al. The human gluteus maximus and its role in running. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:2143–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bartlett JL, Sumner B, Ellis RG, et al. Activity and functions of the human gluteal muscles in walking running, sprinting and climbing. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2014;153(1):124–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dorel S, Guilhem G, Couturier A, et al. Adjustment of muscle coordination during an all-out sprint cycling task. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(11):2154–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sanchis-Moysi J, Idoate F, Izquierdo M, et al. Iliopsoas and gluteal muscles are asymmetric in tennis players but not in soccer players. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mero A, Komi PV, Gregor RJ. Biomechanics of sprint running: a review. Sports Med. 1992;13(6):376–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Morin J, Bourdin M, Edouard P, et al. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(11):3921–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pattyn N, Coeckelberghs E, Buys R, et al. Aerobic interval training vs. moderate continuous training in coronary artery disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(5):687–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fagard RH, Staessen JA, Thijs L. Advantages and disadvantages of the meta-analysis approach. J Hypertens Suppl. 1996;14(2):S9–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Atkinson G, Nevill AM. Selected issues in the design and analysis of sport performance research. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(10):811–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Markovic G, Mikulic P. Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Med. 2010;40(10):859–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nagano Y, Higashihara A, Takahashi K, et al. Mechanics of the muscles crossing the hip joint during sprint running. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(18):1722–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Taylor
    • 1
  • Tom Macpherson
    • 1
  • Iain Spears
    • 1
  • Matthew Weston
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sport and Exercise SciencesSchool of Social Sciences, Business and Law, Teesside UniversityMiddlesbroughUK

Personalised recommendations