This review article examines previous weightlifting literature and provides a rationale for the use of weightlifting pulling derivatives that eliminate the catch phase for athletes who are not competitive weightlifters. Practitioners should emphasize the completion of the triple extension movement during the second pull phase that is characteristic of weightlifting movements as this is likely to have the greatest transference to athletic performance that is dependent on hip, knee, and ankle extension. The clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull are weightlifting pulling derivatives that can be used in the teaching progression of the full weightlifting movements and are thus less complex with regard to exercise technique. Previous literature suggests that the clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull may provide a training stimulus that is as good as, if not better than, weightlifting movements that include the catch phase. Weightlifting pulling derivatives can be implemented throughout the training year, but an emphasis and de-emphasis should be used in order to meet the goals of particular training phases. When implementing weightlifting pulling derivatives, athletes must make a maximum effort, understand that pulling derivatives can be used for both technique work and building strength–power characteristics, and be coached with proper exercise technique. Future research should consider examining the effect of various loads on kinetic and kinematic characteristics of weightlifting pulling derivatives, training with full weightlifting movements as compared to training with weightlifting pulling derivatives, and how kinetic and kinematic variables vary between derivatives of the snatch.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Baker D, Nance S. The relation between running speed and measures of strength and power in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(3):230–5.
Comfort P, Udall R, Jones PA. The effect of loading on kinematic and kinetic variables during the midthigh clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(5):1208–14.
Hori N, Newton RU, Nosaka K, et al. Weightlifting exercises enhance athletic performance that requires high-load speed strength. Strength Cond J. 2005;27(4):50–5.
Newton RU, Kraemer WJ. Developing explosive muscular power: implications for a mixed methods training strategy. Strength Cond J. 1994;16:20–31.
de Villarreal ESS, Requena B, Newton RU. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(5):513–22.
de Villarreal ESS, Kellis E, Kraemer WJ, et al. Determining variables of plyometric training for improving vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):495–506.
Markovic G. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? A meta-analytical review. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(6):349–55.
Ebben WP, Feldmann CR, Vanderzanden TL, et al. Periodized plyometric training is effective for women, and performance is not influenced by the length of post-training recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):1–7.
Miller MG, Herniman JJ, Ricard MD, et al. The effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on agility. J Sports Sci Med. 2006;5(3):459–65.
Ebben WP, Suchomel TJ, Garceau LR. The effect of plyometric training volume on performance. In: Sato K, Sands WA, Mizuguchi S, editors. XXXIInd International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. Johnson City; 2014. p. 566–9.
Rimmer E, Sleivert G. Effects of a plyometrics intervention program on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14(3):295–301.
Zafeiridis A, Saraslanidis P, Manou V, et al. The effects of resisted sled-pulling sprint training on acceleration and maximum speed performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2005;45(3):284–90.
Spinks CD, Murphy AJ, Spinks WL, et al. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(1):77–85.
MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, et al. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. J Appl Physiol. 1998;84(6):2138–42.
Marin PJ, Rhea MR. Effects of vibration training on muscle power: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(3):871–8.
Cardinale M, Bosco C. The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(1):3–7.
Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H, et al. Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(9):1523–8.
Otto WH III, Coburn JW, Brown LE, et al. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(5):1199–202.
Lake JP, Lauder MA. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(8):2228–33.
Manocchia P, Spierer DK, Lufkin AKS, et al. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):477–84.
Tricoli V, Lamas L, Carnevale R, et al. Short-term effects on lower-body functional power development: weightlifting vs. vertical jump training programs. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):433–7.
Hoffman JR, Cooper J, Wendell M, et al. Comparison of Olympic vs. traditional power lifting training programs in football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(1):129–35.
Khamoui AV, Brown LE, Nguyen D, et al. Relationship between force-time and velocity-time characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):198–204.
Chiu LZF, Schilling BK. A primer on weightlifting: from sport to sports training. Strength Cond J. 2005;27(1):42–8.
Comfort P, Allen M, Graham-Smith P. Kinetic comparisons during variations of the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3269–73.
Comfort P, Allen M, Graham-Smith P. Comparisons of peak ground reaction force and rate of force development during variations of the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1235–9.
Cormie P, McCaulley GO, Triplett NT, et al. Optimal loading for maximal power output during lower-body resistance exercises. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(2):340–9.
Hedrick A. Teaching the clean. Strength Cond J. 2004;26(4):70–2.
Hydock D. The weightlifting pull in power development. Strength Cond J. 2001;23(1):32–7.
Kawamori N, Haff GG. The optimal training load for the development of muscular power. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):675–84.
Takano B. The power clean-perspectives and preparation. Strength Cond J. 1992;14(1):68–71.
Hori N, Newton RU, Andrews WA, et al. Does performance of hang power clean differentiate performance of jumping, sprinting, and changing of direction? J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):412–8.
Stone MH, Byrd R, Tew J, et al. Relationship between anaerobic power and olympic weightlifting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1980;20(1):99–102.
Canavan PK, Garrett GE, Armstrong LE. Kinematic and kinetic relationships between an Olympic-style lift and the vertical jump. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10(2):127–30.
Carlock JM, Smith SL, Hartman MJ, et al. The relationship between vertical jump power estimates and weightlifting ability: a field-test approach. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):534–9.
Storey A, Smith HK. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology. Sports Med. 2012;42(9):769–90.
Gratzke C, Hudelmaier M, Hitzl W, et al. Knee cartilage morphologic characteristics and muscle status of professional weight lifters and sprinters a magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(8):1346–53.
Grzelak P, Domzalski M, Majos A, et al. Thickening of the knee joint cartilage in elite weightlifters as a potential adaptation mechanism. Clin Anat. 2014;27:920–8.
Grzelak P, Podgorski M, Stefanczyk L, et al. Hypertrophied cruciate ligament in high performance weightlifters observed in magnetic resonance imaging. Int Orthop. 2012;36(8):1715–9.
Grzelak P, Polguj M, Podgórski M, et al. Patellar ligament hypertrophy evaluated by MRI in a group of professional weightlifters. Folia Morphol. 2012;71(4):240–4.
Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, et al. Site-specific skeletal response to long-term weight training seems to be attributable to principal loading modality: a pQCT study of female weightlifters. Calcif Tissue Int. 2002;70(6):469–74.
Cormie P, McCaulley GO, McBride JM. Power versus strength-power jump squat training: influence on the load-power relationship. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(6):996–1003.
Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1566–81.
Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1582–98.
Nuzzo JL, McBride JM, Cormie P, et al. Relationship between countermovement jump performance and multijoint isometric and dynamic tests of strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):699–707.
Baker D. A series of studies on the training of high-intensity muscle power in rugby league football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(2):198–209.
Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, McCoy L, et al. Power and maximum strength relationships during performance of dynamic and static weighted jumps. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(1):140–7.
Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2—training considerations for improving maximal power production. Sports Med. 2011;41(2):125–46.
Baker D, Nance S, Moore M. The load that maximizes the average mechanical power output during jump squats in power-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):92–7.
Baker D, Nance S. The relation between strength and power in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(3):224–9.
Newton RU, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, et al. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during explosive upper body movements. J Appl Biomech. 1996;12:31–43.
Harbili E, Alptekin A. Comparative kinematic analysis of the snatch lifts in elite male adolescent weightlifters. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(2):417.
Janz J, Malone M. Training explosiveness: Weightlifting and beyond. Strength Cond J. 2008;30(6):14–22.
Suchomel TJ, Sato K. Baseball resistance training: should power clean variations be incorporated? J Athl Enhanc. 2013;2(2). doi:10.4172/2324-9080.1000112.
Hammer E. Preseason training for college baseball. Strength Cond J. 2009;31(2):79–85.
Gearity B. Effective collegiate baseball strength coaching. Strength Cond J. 2009;31(2):74–8.
Weatherly J, Schinck C. Concepts for baseball conditioning. Strength Cond J. 1996;18(2):32–9.
Ebben WP, Hintz MJ, Simenz CJ. Strength and conditioning practices of major league baseball strength and conditioning coaches. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):538–46.
Hedrick A. The importance and value of weightlifting movements in baseball. Natl Strength Cond Assoc Coach. 2014;1(1):14–5.
Suchomel TJ, DeWeese BH, Beckham GK, et al. The jump shrug: a progressive exercise into weightlifting derivatives. Strength Cond J. 2014;36(3):43–7.
Suchomel TJ, DeWeese BH, Beckham GK, et al. The hang high pull: a progressive exercise into weightlifting derivatives. Strength Cond J. 2014;36(6):79–83.
DeWeese BH, Serrano AJ, Scruggs SK, et al. The midthigh pull: proper application and progressions of a weightlifting movement derivative. Strength Cond J. 2013;35(6):54–8.
DeWeese BH, Serrano AJ, Scruggs SK, et al. The clean pull and snatch pull: proper technique for weightlifting movement derivatives. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(6):82–6.
Suchomel TJ, Beckham GK, Wright GA. Lower body kinetics during the jump shrug: impact of load. J Trainol. 2013;2:19–22.
Kawamori N, Rossi SJ, Justice BD, et al. Peak force and rate of force development during isometric and dynamic mid-thigh clean pulls performed at various intensities. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(3):483–91.
Haff GG, Whitley A, McCoy LB, et al. Effects of different set configurations on barbell velocity and displacement during a clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(1):95–103.
Haff GG, Stone M, O’Bryant HS, et al. Force-time dependent characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions. J Strength Cond Res. 1997;11(4):269–72.
Suchomel TJ, Beckham GK, Wright GA. Effect of various loads on the force-time characteristics of the hang high pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2014. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000748.
Suchomel TJ, Wright GA, Kernozek TW, et al. Kinetic comparison of the power development between power clean variations. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(2):350–60.
Suchomel TJ, Wright GA, Lottig J. Lower extremity joint velocity comparisons during the hang power clean and jump shrug at various loads. In: Sato K, Sands WA, Mizuguchi S, editors. XXXIInd International Conference of Biomechanics in Sports. Johnson City; 2014. p. 749–52.
Takano B. Coaching optimal techniques in the snatch and the clean and jerk: Part III. Strength Cond J. 1988;10(1):54–9.
Schilling BK, Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, et al. Snatch technique of collegiate national level weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(4):551–5.
Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, Williams FE, et al. Analysis of bar paths during the snatch in elite male weightlifters. Strength Cond J. 1998;20(4):30–8.
DeWeese BH, Serrano AJ, Scruggs SK, et al. The pull to knee—proper biomechanics for a weightlifting movement derivative. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(4):73–5.
DeWeese BH, Scruggs SK. The countermovement shrug. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(5):20–3.
Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Antoniou P, et al. Comparative 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the snatch technique in elite male and female greek weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(3):359–66.
Johnson J. Teaching the power clean and the hang power clean. Strength Cond J. 1982;4(4):52–4.
Takano B. Coaching optimal technique in the snatch and the clean and jerk: part II. Strength Cond J. 1987;9(6):52–6.
Takano B. Coaching optimal technique in the snatch and the clean and jerk: part I. Strength Cond J. 1987;9(5):50–9.
Duba J, Kraemer W, Martin G. A 6-step progression model for teaching the hang power clean. Strength Cond J. 2007;29(5):26–35.
Baumann W, Gross V, Quade K, et al. The snatch technique of world class weight lifters at the 1985 world championships. Int J Sport Biomech. 1988;4(1):68–89.
Burdett RG. Biomechanics of the snatch technique of highly skilled and skilled weightlifters. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1982;53(3):193–7.
Isaka T, Okada J, Funato K. Kinematic analysis of the barbell during the snatch movement of elite asian weight lifters. J Appl Biomech. 1996;12(4):508–16.
Gourgoulis V, Aggelousis N, Mavromatis G, et al. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the snatch of elite Greek weightlifters. J Sports Sci. 2000;18(8):643–52.
Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Kalivas V, et al. Snatch lift kinematics and bar energetics in male adolescent and adult weightlifters. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2004;44(2):126–31.
Okada J, Iijima K, Fukunaga T, et al. Kinematic analysis of the snatch technique used by Japanese and international female weightlifters at the 2006 junior world championship. Int J Sport Health Sci. 2008;6:194–202.
Häkkinen K, Kauhanen H, Komi VP. Biomechanical changes in the Olympic weightlifting technique of the snatch and clean and jerk from submaximal to maximal loads. Scand J Sport Sci. 1984;6(2):57–66.
Frolov VI, Lellikov SI, Efimov NM, et al. Snatch technique of top-class weight-lifters. Sov Sports Rev. 1979;14:24–9.
Hoover DL, Carlson KM, Christensen BK, et al. Biomechanical analysis of women weightlifters during the snatch. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(3):627–33.
Campos J, Poletaev P, Cuesta A, et al. Kinematical analysis of the snatch in elite male junior weightlifters of different weight categories. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(4):843–50.
Winchester JB, Porter JM, McBride JM. Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):444–54.
Winchester JB, Erickson TM, Blaak JB, et al. Changes in bar-path kinematics and kinetics after power-clean training. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(1):177–83.
Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Garas A, et al. Unsuccessful vs. successful performance in snatch lifts: a kinematic approach. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):486–94.
Nejadian SL, Rostami M, Towhidkhah F. Optimization of barbell trajectory during the snatch lift technique by using optimal control theory. Am J Appl Sci. 2008;5(5):524–31.
Chiu H-T, Wang C-H, Cheng KB. The three-dimensional kinematics of a barbell during the snatch of Taiwanese weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(6):1520–6.
Akkus H. Kinematic analysis of the snatch lift with elite female weightlifters during the 2010 world weightlifting championship. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(4):897–905.
Garhammer J. Power clean: kinesiological evaluation. Strength Cond J. 1984;6(3):40 (61–3).
Kauhanen H, Häkkinen K, Komi PV. A biomechanical analysis of the snatch and clean & jerk techniques of Finnish elite and district level weightlifters. Scand J Sports Sci. 1984;6:47–56.
Comfort P, Fletcher C, McMahon JJ. Determination of optimal loading during the power clean, in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):2970–4.
Cormie P, McBride JM, McCaulley GO. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(4):1042–9.
Cormie P, McBride JM, McCaulley GO. Validation of power measurement techniques in dynamic lower body resistance exercises. J Appl Biomech. 2007;23(2):103–18.
Kawamori N, Crum AJ, Blumert PA, et al. Influence of different relative intensities on power output during the hang power clean: identification of the optimal load. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):698–708.
Kilduff LP, Bevan H, Owen N, et al. Optimal loading for peak power output during the hang power clean in professional rugby players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2007;2(3):260–9.
Ermakov AD. The training load of weightlifters in pulls and squats. Weightlifting yearbook. Livonia: Sportivny Press; 1980. p. 34–8.
Frolov VI, Efimov NM, Vanagas MP. The training weights in the snatch pull. Tyazhelaya Atletika. Moscow: Fizkultura I Sports; 1977. p. 65–7.
Roman RA. The training of the weightlifter. Livonia: Sportivny Press; 1988. p. 39–40.
Garhammer J. Weight lifting and training. In: Vaughan CL, editor. Biomechanics of sport. Boca Rato: CRC Press Inc.; 1989. p. 169–211.
Frolov VI, Efimov NM, Vanagas MP. Training weights for snatch pulls. Sov Sports Rev. 1983;18:58–61.
Dugan EL, Doyle TL, Humphries B, et al. Determining the optimal load for jump squats: a review of methods and calculations. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):668–74.
Hori N, Newton RU, Andrews WA, et al. Comparison of four different methods to measure power output during the hang power clean and the weighted jump squat. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):314–20.
McBride JM, Haines TL, Kirby TJ. Effect of loading on peak power of the bar, body, and system during power cleans, squats, and jump squats. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(11):1215–21.
Moir GL, Gollie JM, Davis SE, et al. The effects of load on system and lower-body joint kinetics during jump squats. Sports Biomech. 2012;11(4):492–506.
Kipp K, Harris C, Sabick M. Correlations between internal and external power outputs during weightlifting exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(4):1025–30.
Kipp K, Redden J, Sabick M, et al. Kinematic and kinetic synergies of the lower extremities during the pull in Olympic weightlifting. J Appl Biomech. 2012;28(3):271–8.
Kipp K, Harris C, Sabick MB. Lower extremity biomechanics during weightlifting exercise vary across joint and load. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1229–34.
Souza AL, Shimada SD, Koontz A. Ground reaction forces during the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(3):423–7.
Suchomel TJ, Beckham GK, Wright GA. The impact of load on lower body performance variables during the hang power clean. Sports Biomech. 2014;13(1):87–95.
Wicki B, Culici J, DeMarco N, et al. Comparison of rate of force development during a light and moderate load snatch pull. J Undergrad Kinesiol Res. 2014;9(2):20–30.
Thomas GA, Kraemer WJ, Spiering BA, et al. Maximal power at different percentages of one repetition maximum: influence of resistance and gender. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):336–42.
Stone MH, Fry AC, Ritchie M, et al. Injury potential and safety aspects of weightlifting movements. Strength Cond J. 1994;16(3):15–21.
Kulund DN, Dewey JB, Brubaker CE, et al. Olympic weightlifting injuries. Phys Sportsmed. 1978;6(11):111–9.
Wagner K, Greener T, Petersen D. Weight room discipline. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(2):93–5.
Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(4):674–88.
Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(2):364–80.
Young WB. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(2):74–83.
Verkhoshansky YV, Siff MC. Supertraining. Verkhoshansky; 2009.
Stone MH. Pulling movements A-Z. In: 8th Annual Coaches and Sport Science College. Johnson City; 2013.
Enoka RM. The pull in Olympic weightlifting. Med Sci Sports. 1979;11(2):131–7.
Chiu LZF, Salem GJ. Potentiation of vertical jump performance during a snatch pull exercise session. J Appl Biomech. 2012;28:627–35.
Souza AL, Shimada SD. Biomechanical analysis of the knee during the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(2):290–7.
Beckham GK, Mizuguchi S, Carter C, et al. Relationships of isometric mid-thigh pull variables to weightlifting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2013;53(5):573–81.
Kraska JM, Ramsey MW, Haff GG, et al. Relationship between strength characteristics and unweighted and weighted vertical jump height. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(4):461–73.
Garhammer J. Performance evaluation of Olympic weightlifters. Med Sci Sports. 1978;11(3):284–7.
Garhammer J. Power production by Olympic weightlifters. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(1):54–60.
Hedrick A, Wada H. Weightlifting movements: do the benefits outweigh the risks? Strength Cond J. 2008;30(6):26–35.
Baker D. The effectiveness of the wave-cycle for in-season training: 20 years of evidence on the in-season maintenance of strength and power in professional athletes. In: 36th National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting. Las Vegas; 2013.
Stone MH, Sands WA, Pierce KC, et al. Power and power potentiation among strength-power athletes: preliminary study. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3(1):55–67.
Maloney SJ, Turner AN, Fletcher IM. Ballistic exercise as a pre-activation stimulus: a review of the literature and practical applications. Sports Med. 2014;44(10):1347–59.
Hamill BP. Relative safety of weightlifting and weight training. J Strength Cond Res. 1994;8(1):53–7.
Pierce K, Byrd R, Stone MH. Youth weightlifting—is it safe? Weightlifting USA. 1999;17(4):5.
Sale D, MacDougall D. Specificity in strength training: a review for the coach and athlete. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1981;6(2):87–92.
Morrissey MC, Harman EA, Johnson MJ. Resistance training modes: specificity and effectiveness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(5):648–60.
Haff GG, Nimphius S. Training principles for power. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(6):2–12.
Stone MH, Sands WA, Pierce KC, et al. Relationship of maximum strength to weightlifting performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):1037–43.
Burkhardt E, Barton B, Garhammer J. Maximal impact and propulsive forces during jumping and explosive lifting exercises. J Appl Sports Sci Res. 1990;4(3):107.
Radcliffe JC, Radcliffe JL. Effects of different warm-up protocols on peak power output during a single response jump task [Abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:S189.
Andrews TR, Mackey T, Inkrott TA, et al. Effect of hang cleans or squats paired with countermovement vertical jumps on vertical displacement. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(9):2448–52.
Dinsdale A, Bissas A. Completing a prior set of hang cleans does not improve the performance in the vertical jump irrespective of the length of the recovery period [Abstract]. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1.
McCann MR, Flanagan SP. The effects of exercise selection and rest interval on postactivation potentiation of vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(5):1285–91.
Guggenheimer JD, Dickin DC, Reyes GF, et al. The effects of specific preconditioning activities on acute sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(4):1135–9.
Seitz LB, Trajano GS, Haff GG. The back squat and the power clean: elicitation of different degrees of potentiation. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(4):643–9.
Stone MH, Pierce KC, Sands WA, et al. Weightlifting: program design. Strength Cond J. 2006;28(2):10–7.
Bompa TO, Haff G. Periodization: theory and methodology of training. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2009.
Stone MH, O’Bryant H, Garhammer J. A hypothetical model for strength training. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1981;21(4):342–51.
Minetti AE. On the mechanical power of joint extensions as affected by the change in muscle force (or cross-sectional area), ceteris paribus. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;86(4):363–9.
Zamparo P, Minetti A, di Prampero P. Interplay among the changes of muscle strength, cross-sectional area and maximal explosive power: theory and facts. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;88(3):193–202.
Hardee JP, Lawrence MM, Zwetsloot KA, et al. Effect of cluster set configurations on power clean technique. J Sports Sci. 2012;31(5):488–96.
Rucci JA, Tomporowski PD. Three types of kinematic feedback and the execution of the hang power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(3):771–8.
Kaneko M, Fuchimoto T, Toji H, et al. Training effect of different loads on the force-velocity relationship and mechanical power output in human muscle. Scand J Sports Sci. 1983;5(2):50–5.
Wilson GJ, Newton RU, Murphy AJ, et al. The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(11):1279–86.
Moss BM, Refsnes PE, Abildgaard A, et al. Effects of maximal effort strength training with different loads on dynamic strength, cross-sectional area, load-power and load-velocity relationships. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1997;75(3):193–9.
Stone MH, O’Bryant HS. Weight training: a scientific approach. Minneapolis: Burgess International; 1987.
Scala D, McMillan J, Blessing D, et al. Metabolic cost of a preparatory phase of training in weight lifting: a practical observation. J Strength Cond Res. 1987;1(3):48–52.
Hardee JP, Lawrence MM, Utter AC, et al. Effect of inter-repetition rest on ratings of perceived exertion during multiple sets of the power clean. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(8):3141–7.
Hardee JP, Triplett NT, Utter AC, et al. Effect of interrepetition rest on power output in the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(4):883–9.
Haff GG, Hobbs RT, Haff EE, et al. Cluster training: a novel method for introducing training program variation. Strength Cond J. 2008;30(1):67–76.
Moolyk AN, Carey JP, Chiu LZF. Characteristics of lower extremity work during the impact phase of jumping and weightlifting. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(12):3225–32.
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.
About this article
Cite this article
Suchomel, T.J., Comfort, P. & Stone, M.H. Weightlifting Pulling Derivatives: Rationale for Implementation and Application. Sports Med 45, 823–839 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0314-y
- Training Stimulus
- National Collegiate Athletic Association
- Resistance Training Program
- Exercise Technique
- High Pull