Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 213–229 | Cite as

Vitamin D: Recent Advances and Implications for Athletes

  • Joshua J. Todd
  • L. Kirsty Pourshahidi
  • Emeir M. McSorley
  • Sharon M. Madigan
  • Pamela J. Magee
Review Article


Athletes may be predisposed to low vitamin D concentrations, with studies reporting a high prevalence of athletes with a vitamin D concentration below 50 nmol/L across a range of sports and geographical locations, particularly over the winter months. It is well documented that vitamin D is important for osseous health by enhancing calcium absorption at the small intestine; however, emerging research suggests that vitamin D may also benefit a plethora of extra-skeletal target tissues and systems. There is strong evidence that vitamin D is capable of regulating both innate and adaptive immune processes via binding of active vitamin D to its complementary receptor. Supplementation with vitamin D may also enhance skeletal muscle function through morphological adaptations and enhanced calcium availability during cross-bridge cycling; however, an exact mechanism of action is yet to be elucidated. Such findings have prompted research into the importance of maintaining vitamin D concentrations over wintertime and the possible physiological and immunological benefits of vitamin D supplementation in athletes. The following review critically evaluates existing literature and presents novel perspectives on how vitamin D may enhance athletic performance.


Female Athlete Human Skeletal Muscle Sport Performance Skeletal Muscle Function Muscle Dysmorphia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the Department for Employment and Learning for supporting this research. No sources of funding were used to assist directly in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua J. Todd
    • 1
  • L. Kirsty Pourshahidi
    • 1
  • Emeir M. McSorley
    • 1
  • Sharon M. Madigan
    • 2
  • Pamela J. Magee
    • 1
  1. 1.Northern Ireland Centre for Food and HealthUniversity of UlsterColeraineNorthern Ireland, UK
  2. 2.Irish Institute of SportDublinIreland

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