Skip to main content

Exercise-Based Injury Prevention in Child and Adolescent Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis



The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may negatively affect future health as well as quality of life. Thus, sports injury prevention is of particular importance in youth.


The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the effectiveness of exercise-based injury prevention programs in child and adolescent sport in general, and with respect to different characteristics of the target group, injury prevention program, and outcome variables.

Data Sources

An Internet-based literature search was conducted in six databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) using the following search terms with Boolean conjunction: (sport injur* OR athletic injur* OR sport accident*) AND (prevent* OR prophylaxis OR avoidance) AND (child* OR adolescent OR youth).

Study Selection

Randomized controlled trials and controlled intervention studies in organized sport, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, analyzing the effects of an exercise-based injury prevention program in athletes younger than 19 years of age.

Data Extraction

Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcome extracted was the rate ratio (RR). Statistical analyses were conducted using the inverse-variance random effects model.


Twenty-one trials, conducted on a total of 27,561 athletes (median age 16.7 years [range 10.7–17.8]), were included. The overall RR was 0.54 (95 % CI 0.45–0.67) [p < 0.001]. Girls profited more from injury prevention than boys (p = 0.05). Both prevention programs with a focus on specific injuries (RR 0.48 [95 % CI 0.37–0.63]) and those aiming at all injuries (RR 0.62 [95 % CI 0.48–0.81]) showed significant reduction effects. Pre-season and in-season interventions were similarly beneficial (p = 0.93). Studies on programs that include jumping/plyometric exercises showed a significant better (p = 0.002) injury preventive effect (RR 0.45 [95 % CI 0.35–0.57], Z = 6.35, p < 0.001) than studies without such exercises (RR 0.74 [95 % CI 0.61–0.90], Z = 3.03, p = 0.002).


The results provide good evidence and clearly demonstrate beneficial effects of exercise-based injury prevention programs in youth sports as they can result in statistically significant and practically relevant injury reduction. In particular, multimodal programs including jumping/plyometric exercises can be recommended. However, there is a considerable lack of data for children (under 14 years of age) and for individual sports in general. Future research should include these groups and focus on the effect of specific exercises and compliance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Loprinzi PD, Cardinal BJ, Loprinzi KL, et al. Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents. Obes Facts. 2012;5(4):597–610. doi:10.1159/000342684.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sibley BA, Jennifer LE. The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2003;15:243–56.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bielemann RM, Martinez-Mesa J, Gigante DP. Physical activity during life course and bone mass: a systematic review of methods and findings from cohort studies with young adults. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:77. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-77.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kjønniksen L, Anderssen N, Wold B. Organized youth sport as a predictor of physical activity in adulthood. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(5):646–54. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00850.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Telama R, Yang X, Viikari J, et al. Physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a 21-year tracking study. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(3):267–73. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.12.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, et al. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD007651. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Naylor PJ, McKay HA. Prevention in the first place: schools a setting for action on physical inactivity. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(1):10–3. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.053447.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    King MA, Pickett W, King AJ. Injury in Canadian youth: a secondary analysis of the 1993–94 health behaviour in school-aged children survey. Can J Public Health. 1998;89(6):397–401.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kahl H, Dortschy R, Ellsasser G. Injuries among children and adolescents (1–17 years) and implementation of safety measures. Results of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2007;50(5–6):718–27. doi:10.1007/s00103-007-0233-7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Mummery WK, Spence JC, Vincenten JA, et al. A descriptive epidemiology of sport and recreation injuries in a population-based sample: results from the Alberta Sport and Recreation Injury Survey (ASRIS). Can J Public Health. 1998;89(1):53–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Maffulli N, Longo UG, Gougoulias N, et al. Long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(1):21–5. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.069526.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Emery CA. Risk factors for injury in child and adolescent sport: a systematic review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13(4):256–68.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Caine D, Caine C, Maffulli N. Incidence and distribution of pediatric sport-related injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16(6):500–13. doi:10.1097/01.jsm.0000251181.36582.a0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Collard DC, Verhagen EA, Mechelen W, et al. Economic burden of physical activity-related injuries in Dutch children aged 10–12. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(13):1058–63. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.082545.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Öztürk S, Kilic D. What is the economic burden of sports injuries? Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi. 2013;24(2):108–11. doi:10.5606/ehc.2013.24.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Michaud PA, Renaud A, Narring F. Sports activities related to injuries? A survey among 9–19 year olds in Switzerland. Inj Prev. 2001;7(1):41–5.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bijur PE, Trumble A, Harel Y, et al. Sports and recreation injuries in US children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149(9):1009–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Belechri M, Petridou E, Kedikoglou S, et al. Sports injuries among children in six European Union countries. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(11):1005–12. doi:10.2307/3582581.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hedstrom EM, Bergstrom U, Michno P. Injuries in children and adolescents: analysis of 41,330 injury related visits to an emergency department in northern Sweden. Injury. 2012;43(9):1403–8. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2011.01.027.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Verhagen E. A prospective cohort study on physical activity and sports-related injuries in 10–12-year-old children. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(13):1031–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    McIntosh AS, McCrory P, Finch CF, et al. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(3):188–93.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hofferth SL, Sandberg JF. How American children spend their time. J Marriage Fam. 2001;63(2):295–308. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00295.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Adirim TA, Cheng TL. Overview of injuries in the young athlete. Sports Med. 2003;33(1):75–81. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333010-00006.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Collard DCM, Chinapaw MJM, van Mechelen W, et al. Design of the iPlay study systematic development of a physical activity injury prevention programme for primary school children. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):889–901.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Finch C, Clapperton A. The public health burden of sports injuries. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:S339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Flynn JM, Lou JE, Ganley TJ. Prevention of sports injuries in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002;14(6):719–22. doi:10.1097/00008480-200212000-00015.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Franklin CC, Weiss JM. Stopping sports injuries in kids: an overview of the last year in publications. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24(1):64–7. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32834ec618.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Maffulli N, Longo UG, Spiezia F, et al. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes. Med Sport Sci. 2011;56:187–200.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ladenhauf HN, Graziano J, Marx RG. Anterior cruciate ligament prevention strategies: are they effective in young athletes—current concepts and review of literature. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25(1):64–71. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835ad208.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Abernethy L, Bleakley C. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(10):627–38.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Emery CA. Injury prevention and future research. Med Sport Sci. 2005;49:170–91. doi:10.1159/000085396.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Frisch A, Croisier JL, Urhausen A, et al. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport. Br Med Bull. 2009;92(1):95–121. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldp034.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    MacKay M, Scanlan A, Olsen L, et al. Looking for the evidence: a systematic review of prevention strategies addressing sport and recreational injury among children and youth. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(1):58–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    McGuine T. Sports injuries in high school athletes: a review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16(6):488–99. doi:10.1097/01.jsm.0000248848.62368.43.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Heidt RS Jr, Sweeterman LM, Carlonas RL, et al. Avoidance of soccer injuries with preseason conditioning. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5):659–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hewett TE, Lindenfeld TN, Riccobene JV, et al. The effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injury in female athletes. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27(6):699–706.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Junge A, Rosch D, Peterson L, et al. Prevention of soccer injuries: a prospective intervention study in youth amateur players. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(5):652–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    LaBella CR, Huxford MR, Grissom J, et al. Effect of neuromuscular warm-up on injuries in female soccer and basketball athletes in urban public high schools: cluster randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;11:1033–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Malliou P, Gioftsidou A, Pafis G, et al. Proprioceptive training (balance exercises) reduces lower extremity injuries in young soccer players. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2004;17(3):101–4.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mandelbaum BR, Silvers HJ, Watanabe DS, et al. Effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(7):1003–10. doi:10.1177/0363546504272261.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Pfeiffer RP, Shea KG, Roberts D, et al. Lack of effect of a knee ligament injury prevention program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(8):1769–74. doi:10.2106/jbjs.e.00616.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Lundgaard B, et al. Prevention of injuries in young female players in European team handball. A prospective intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1999;1:41–7.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0, Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.

  44. 44.

    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, et al. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, et al. A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Res Synth Methods. 2010;1(2):97–111. doi:10.1002/jrsm.12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Deeks J, Higgins J. Statistical algorithms in Review Manager 5. The Cochrane Collaboration; 2010.

  47. 47.

    Collard DC, Verhagen EA, Chinapaw MJ, et al. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;2:145–50.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Emery CA. The effectiveness of a neuromuscular prevention strategy to reduce injuries in youth soccer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(8):555–62.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Emery CA, Rose MS, McAllister JR, et al. A prevention strategy to reduce the incidence of injury in high school basketball: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;1:17–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Kiani A, Hellquist E, Ahlqvist K, et al. Prevention of soccer-related knee injuries in teenaged girls. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(1):43–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Longo UG, Loppini M, Berton A, et al. The FIFA 11+ program is effective in preventing injuries in elite male basketball players: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(5):996–1005. doi:10.1177/0363546512438761.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Waldén M, Atroshi I, Magnusson H, et al. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2012;344:e3042. doi:10.1136/bmj.e3042.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K, et al. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a2469. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2469.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Steffen K, Myklebust G, Olsen OE, et al. Preventing injuries in female youth football: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(5):605–14. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00703.x.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Scase E, Cook J, Makdissi M, et al. Teaching landing skills in elite junior Australian football: evaluation of an injury prevention strategy. Br J Sports Med. 2006;10:834–8 (discussion 8).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Cumps E, Verhagen E, Meeusen R. Efficacy of a sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of ankle sprains in basketball. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6(2):212–9.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Emery CA, Cassidy JD, Klassen TP, et al. Effectiveness of a home-based balance-training program in reducing sports-related injuries among healthy adolescents: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Can Med Assoc J. 2005;6:749–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    McGuine TA, Keene JS. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;7:1103–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005;330(7489):449–52. doi:10.1136/bmj.38330.632801.8F.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Gagnier JJ, Morgenstern H, Chess L. Interventions designed to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries in adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(8):1952–62. doi:10.1177/0363546512458227.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Myer GD, Sugimoto D, Thomas S, et al. The influence of age on the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(1):203–15. doi:10.1177/0363546512460637.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Herman K, Barton C, Malliaras P, et al. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review. BMC Med. 2012;10:75. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-75.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    van Beijsterveldt AMC, van der Horst N, van de Port IGL, et al. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? A systematic review. Sports Med. 2013;43(4):257–65. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0026-0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Nauta J, Van Mechelen W, Otten R, et al. A systematic review on the effectiveness of community and school-based injury prevention programs on risk behavior and injury risk in children. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:S16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Maffulli N, Longo UG, Spiezia F, et al. Sports injuries in young athletes: long-term outcome and prevention strategies. Phys Sportsmed. 2010;38(2):29–34. doi:10.3810/psm.2010.06.1780.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Lubans DR, Sylva K, Morgan PJ. Factors associated with physical activity in a sample of British secondary school students. Aust J Educ Dev Psychol. 2007;7:22.

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Zimmermann-Sloutskis D, Wanner M, Zimmermann E, et al. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7:2. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-7-2.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Pate RR, Trost SG, Levin S, et al. Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(9):904–11.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Prodromos CC, Han Y, Rogowski J, et al. A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(12):1320–1325.e6. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2007.07.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Faude O, Rößler R, Junge A. Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention? Sports Med. 2013;43(9):819–37. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0061-x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Swenson DM, Yard EE, Collins CL, et al. Epidemiology of US high school sports-related fractures, 2005–2009. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(4):293–9. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181e8fae8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Marar M, McIlvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):747–55. doi:10.1177/0363546511435626.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Howell KC. Training for landing and cutting stability in young female basketball and soccer players. Strength Cond J. 2013;35(2):66–78. doi:10.1519/SSC.0b013e31828b9a23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339:b2535. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2535.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M. Systematic review and meta-analysis: a primer. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012;7(5):493–503.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Steffen K, Emery CA, Romiti M, et al. High adherence to a neuromuscular injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) improves functional balance and reduces injury risk in Canadian youth female football players: a cluster randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(12):794–802. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091886.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Soligard T, Nilstad A, Steffen K, et al. Compliance with a comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in youth football. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(11):787–93. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.070672.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Mannix R. A substantial proportion of life-threatening injuries are sport-related. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(5):624–7. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e31828e9cea.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Reis I, Rebelo A, Krustrup P, et al. Performance enhancement effects of Federation Internationale de Football Association’s “The 11+” injury prevention training program in youth futsal players. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(4):318–20.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Oliver Faude and Roland Rössler designed the study protocol. Roland Rössler and Thomas Schweizer searched the databases and checked the obtained studies regarding inclusion and exclusion criteria. Oliver Faude, Astrid Junge, and Evert Verhagen contributed to the search. Oliver Faude and Roland Rössler assessed the eligibility of the studies for inclusion. Roland Rössler and Thomas Schweizer extracted the data. Roland Rössler and Lars Donath assessed the quality of eligible studies. Oliver Faude contributed to the study quality assessment. Roland Rössler conducted the analysis and wrote the draft of the paper. All authors contributed to writing, reviewing, and revising the manuscript, agreed on the final draft, and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the analysis. No sources of funding were utilized in conducting this study. Roland Rössler, Lars Donath, Evert Verhagen, Astrid Junge, Thomas Schweizer, and Oliver Faude have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roland Rössler.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 83 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rössler, R., Donath, L., Verhagen, E. et al. Exercise-Based Injury Prevention in Child and Adolescent Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med 44, 1733–1748 (2014).

Download citation


  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament
  • Rate Ratio
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
  • Injury Prevention
  • Injury Incidence