Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 1333–1345 | Cite as

Coordination Pattern Variability Provides Functional Adaptations to Constraints in Swimming Performance

  • Ludovic SeifertEmail author
  • John Komar
  • Tiago Barbosa
  • Huub Toussaint
  • Grégoire Millet
  • Keith Davids
Review Article


In a biophysical approach to the study of swimming performance (blending biomechanics and bioenergetics), inter-limb coordination is typically considered and analysed to improve propulsion and propelling efficiency. In this approach, ‘opposition’ or ‘continuous’ patterns of inter-limb coordination, where continuity between propulsive actions occurs, are promoted in the acquisition of expertise. Indeed a ‘continuous’ pattern theoretically minimizes intra-cyclic speed variations of the centre of mass. Consequently, it may also minimize the energy cost of locomotion. However, in skilled swimming performance there is a need to strike a delicate balance between inter-limb coordination pattern stability and variability, suggesting the absence of an ‘ideal’ pattern of coordination toward which all swimmers must converge or seek to imitate. Instead, an ecological dynamics framework advocates that there is an intertwined relationship between the specific intentions, perceptions and actions of individual swimmers, which constrains this relationship between coordination pattern stability and variability. This perspective explains how behaviours emerge from a set of interacting constraints, which each swimmer has to satisfy in order to achieve specific task performance goals and produce particular task outcomes. This overview updates understanding on inter-limb coordination in swimming to analyse the relationship between coordination variability and stability in relation to interacting constraints (related to task, environment and organism) that swimmers may encounter during training and performance.


Swimming Speed Coordination Pattern Front Crawl Stroke Cycle Mechanical Power Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Ludovic Seifert, John Komar, Tiago Barbosa, Huub Toussaint, Grégoire Millet and Keith Davids declare no conflicts of interest. This project received the funding of the CPER/GRR1880 Logistic Transport and Information Processing 2007–2013. The authors thank Christophe Schnitzler and Didier Chollet for their advice during the writing of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludovic Seifert
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Komar
    • 1
  • Tiago Barbosa
    • 2
  • Huub Toussaint
    • 3
  • Grégoire Millet
    • 4
  • Keith Davids
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Sports Sciences, Centre d’Etude des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives (CETAPS), EA 3832University of RouenMont Saint AignanFrance
  2. 2.Physical Education and Sports Science Academic Group, National Institute of EducationNanyang UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Academy of Physical EducationUniversity of Applied Sciences AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, ISSUL Institute of Sport SciencesUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  5. 5.FiDiPro ProgrammeUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  6. 6.Centre for Sports Engineering ResearchSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

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