Skip to main content
Log in

What is Normal? Female Lower Limb Kinematic Profiles During Athletic Tasks Used to Examine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk: A Systematic Review

  • Systematic Review
  • Published:
Sports Medicine Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Background

It has been proposed that the performance of athletic tasks where normal motion is exceeded has the potential to damage the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Determining the expected or ‘normal’ kinematic profile of athletic tasks commonly used to assess ACL injury risk can provide an evidence base for the identification of abnormal or anomalous task performances in a laboratory setting.

Objective

The objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies examining lower limb kinematics of females during drop landing, drop vertical jump, and side-step cutting tasks, to determine ‘normal’ ranges for hip and knee joint kinematic variables.

Data Sources

An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscusTM, MEDLINE, AMED and CINAHL (January 1980–August 2013) databases using a combination of relevant keywords.

Study Selection

Studies identified as potentially relevant were independently examined by two reviewers for inclusion. Where consensus could not be reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined three-dimensional hip and knee kinematics of female subjects during the athletic tasks of interest were included for review. Articles were excluded if subjects had a history of lower back or lower limb joint injury or isolated data from the female cohort could not be extracted.

Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of included studies. Data on subject characteristics, the athletic task performed, and kinematic data were extracted from included studies. Studies were categorised according to the athletic task being examined and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate the weighted means and standard deviations for hip and knee kinematics (initial contact and peak values). ‘Normal’ motion was classified as the weighted mean plus/minus one standard deviation.

Results

Of 2,920 citations, a total of 159 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 29 meeting all inclusion/exclusion criteria. Due to the limited number of studies available examining double-leg drop landings and single-leg drop vertical jumps, insufficient data was available to include these tasks in the review. Therefore, a total of 25 articles were included. From the included studies, ‘normal’ ranges were calculated for the kinematic variables of interest across the athletic tasks examined.

Limitations

Joint forces and other additional elements play a role in ACL injuries, therefore, focusing solely on lower limb kinematics in classifying injury risk may not encapsulate all relevant factors. Insufficient data resulted in no normal ranges being calculated for double-leg drop land and single-leg drop vertical jump tasks. No included study examined hip internal/external rotation during single-leg drop landings, therefore ranges for this kinematic variable could not be determined. Variation in data between studies resulted in wide normal ranges being observed across certain kinematic variables.

Conclusions

The ranges calculated in this review provide evidence-based values that can be used to identify abnormal or anomalous athletic task performances on a multi-planar scale. This may be useful in identifying neuromuscular factors or specific muscular recruitment strategies that contribute to ACL injury risk.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Hewett T, Myer G, Ford K, et al. The 2012 ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: the sequence of prevention: a systematic approach to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470(10):1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Hewett TE, Ford KR, Hoogenboom BJ, et al. Understanding and preventing ACL injuries: current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations—update 2010. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2010;5(4):234–51.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. Part 1: mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):299–311.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ, et al. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2000;8(3):141–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Hewett TE. Neuromuscular and hormonal factors associated with knee injuries in female athletes: strategies for intervention. Sports Med. 2000;29(5):313–27.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. McLean SG, Lipfert SW, van den Bogert AJ. Effect of gender and defensive opponent on the biomechanics of sidestep cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(6):1008–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bjordal JM, Arnoy F, Hannestad B, et al. Epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament in soccer. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(3):341–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Kvist J. Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament injury: current recommendations for sports participation. Sports Med. 2004;34(4):269–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Myklebust G, Bahr R. Return to play guidelines after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(3):127–31.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Roos H, Ornell M, Gardsell P, et al. Soccer after anterior cruciate ligament injury—an incompatible combination? A national survey of incidence and risk factors and a 7-year follow-up of 310 players. Acta Orthop Scand. 1995;66(2):107–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Lohmander LS, Englund PM, Dahl LL, et al. The long-term consequence of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(10):1756–69.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Lohmander LS, Östenberg A, Englund M, et al. High prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, pain, and functional limitations in female soccer players twelve years after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(10):3145–52.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Øiestad BE, Holm I, Engebretsen L, et al. The association between radiographic knee osteoarthritis and knee symptoms, function and quality of life 10–15 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(7):583–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Colby S, Francisco A, Yu B, et al. Electromyographic and kinematic analysis of cutting maneuvers: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(2):234–40.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Ekegren CL, Miller WC, Celebrini RG, et al. Reliability and validity of observational risk screening in evaluating dynamic knee valgus. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(9):665–74.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, et al. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(4):492–501.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Imwalle LE, Myer GD, Ford KR, et al. Relationship between hip and knee kinematics in athletic women during cutting maneuvers: a possible link to noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury and prevention. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(8):2223–30.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Laughlin WA, Weinhandl JT, Kernozek TW, et al. The effects of single-leg landing technique on ACL loading. J Biomech. 2011;44(10):1845–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. McLean SG, Huang X, van den Bogert AJ. Association between lower extremity posture at contact and peak knee valgus moment during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury. Clin Biomech. 2005;20(8):863–70.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Shimokochi Y, Ambegaonkar J, Meyer E, et al. Changing sagittal plane body position during single-leg landings influences the risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(4):888–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Zebis MK, Andersen LL, Bencke J, et al. Identification of athletes at future risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures by neuromuscular screening. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(10):1967–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Boden BP, Dean GS, Feagin JA Jr, et al. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics. 2000;23(6):573–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Krosshaug T, Nakamae A, Boden BP, et al. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball: video analysis of 39 cases. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(3):359–67.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: a systematic video analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(4):1002–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Decker MJ, Torry MR, Wyland DJ, et al. Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics and energy absorption during landing. Clin Biomech. 2003;18(7):662–9.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Yu B, Garrett WE. Mechanisms of non-contact ACL injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:i47–51.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Schmitz RJ, Thompson TJ, Riemann BL, et al. Gender differences in hip and knee kinematics and muscle preactivation strategies during single leg landings. J Athl Train. 2002;37:S-20.

    Google Scholar 

  28. McLean SG, Huang X, Su A, et al. Sagittal plane biomechanics cannot injure the ACL during sidestep cutting. Clin Biomech. 2004;19(8):828–38.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Powers CM. The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury: a biomechanical perspective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(2):42–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Markolf KL, Burchfield DM, Shapiro MM, et al. Combined knee loading states that generate high anterior cruciate ligament forces. J Orthop Res. 1995;13(6):930–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Oh YK, Lipps DB, Ashton-Miller JA, et al. What strains the anterior cruciate ligament during a pivot landing? Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(3):574–83.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Shin CS, Chaudhari AM, Andriacchi TP. Valgus plus internal rotation moments increase anterior cruciate ligament strain more than either alone. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1484–91.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Withrow TJ, Huston LJ, Wojtys EM, et al. The effect of an impulsive knee valgus moment on in vitro relative ACL strain during a simulated jump landing. Clin Biomech. 2006;21(9):977–83.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Quatman CE, Quatman-Yates CC, Hewett TE. A ‘plane’ explanation of anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2010;40(9):729–46.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Blackburn JT, Padua DA. Influence of trunk flexion on hip and knee joint kinematics during a controlled drop landing. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(3):313–9.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Pollard CD, Sigward SM, Powers CM. Limited hip and knee flexion during landing is associated with increased frontal plane knee motion and moments. Clin Biomech. 2010;25(2):142–6.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52(6):377–84.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. McLean SG, Borotikar B, Lucey SM. Lower limb muscle pre-motor time measures during a choice reaction task associate with knee abduction loads during dynamic single leg landings. Clin Biomech. 2010;25(6):563–9.

    Google Scholar 

  39. McLean SG, Huang X, van den Bogert AJ. Investigating isolated neuromuscular control contributions to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk via computer simulation methods. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(7):926–36.

    Google Scholar 

  40. McLean SG, Samorezov JE. Fatigue-induced ACL injury risk stems from a degradation in central control. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(8):1661–72.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Gravetter FJ, Wallnau LB. Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. 8th ed. Belmont: Cengage Learning; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Ali N, Robertson DGE, Rouhi G. Sagittal plane body kinematics during single-leg landing from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances: implications for risk of non-contact ACL injury. Knee. Epub 2012 Dec 27th.

  43. Ambegaonkar JP, Shultz SJ, Perrin DH. A subsequent movement alters lower extremity muscle activity and kinetics in drop jumps vs. drop landings. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(10):2781–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Bassa EI, Patikas DA, Panagiotidou AI, et al. The effect of dropping height on jumping performance in trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(8):2258–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Bates NA, Ford KR, Myer GD, et al. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop jump. Clin Biomech. 2013;28(7):796–9.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Beaulieu ML, Lamontagne M, Xu L. Gender differences in time-frequency EMG analysis of unanticipated cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(10):1795–804.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Bencke J, Curtis D, Krogshede C, et al. Biomechanical evaluation of the side-cutting manoeuvre associated with ACL injury in young female handball players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(8):1876–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR, et al. Anticipatory effects on knee joint loading during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(7):1176–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Cochrane JL, et al. External loading of the knee joint during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(7):1168–75.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Borotikar BS, Newcomer R, Koppes R, et al. Combined effects of fatigue and decision making on female lower limb landing postures: central and peripheral contributions to ACL injury risk. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(1):81–92.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Brazen DM, Todd MK, Ambegaonkar JP, et al. The effect of fatigue on landing biomechanics in single-leg drop landings. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(4):286–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Brown CN, Padua DA, Marshall SW, et al. Variability of motion in individuals with mechanical or functional ankle instability during a stop jump maneuver. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(9):762–8.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Brown TN, McLean SG, Palmieri-Smith RM. Associations between lower limb muscle activation strategies and resultant multi-planar knee kinetics during single leg landings. J Sci Med Sport. Epub 10 Jul 2013.

  54. Brown TN, Palmieri-Smith RM, McLean SG. Knee kinematics during single- and double-legged jump landings following six weeks of neuromuscular training. J Athl Train. 2010;45(5):530.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Butler RJ, Willson JD, Fowler D, et al. Gender differences in landing mechanics vary depending on the type of landing. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(1):52–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Carcia C, Eggen J, Shultz S. Hip-abductor fatigue, frontal-plane landing angle, and excursion during a drop jump. J Sport Rehabil. 2005;14(4):321–31.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Carcia CR, Martin RL. The influence of gender on gluteus medius activity during a drop jump. Phys Ther Sport. 2007;8(4):169–76.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Caster BL, Bates BT. The assessment of mechanical and neuromuscular response strategies during landing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(5):736–44.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Chaudhari AM, Hearn BK, Andriacchi TP. Sport-dependent variations in arm position during single-limb landing influence knee loading: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(6):824–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Chaudhari AMW, Lindenfeld TN, Andriacchi TP, et al. Knee and hip loading patterns at different phases in the menstrual cycle: implications for the gender difference in anterior cruciate ligament injury rates. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(5):793–800.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Chimera NJ, Swanik KA, Swanik CB, et al. Effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance in female athletes. J Athl Train. 2004;39(1):24–31.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Cochrane J, Lloyd D, Besier T, et al. Changes in loading on the knee and knee flexion following lower limb training programmes implemented to assess the effect on risk of knee injury and prevention. J Sci Med Sport. 2003;6(S1):89.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Cochrane JL, Lloyd DG, Besier TF, et al. Training affects knee kinematics and kinetics in cutting maneuvers in sport. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1535–44.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Cortes N, Onate J. Clinical assessment of drop-jump landing for determination of risk for knee injury. Int J Athl Ther Train. 2013;18(3):10–3.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Cortes N, Onate J, Abrantes J, et al. Effects of gender and foot-landing techniques on lower extremity kinematics during drop-jump landings. J Appl Biomech. 2007;23(4):289–99.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Coventry E, O’Connor KM, Hart BA, et al. The effect of lower extremity fatigue on shock attenuation during single-leg landing. Clin Biomech. 2006;21(10):1090–7.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Dempsey AR, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, et al. Changing sidestep cutting technique reduces knee valgus loading. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(11):2194–200.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Dempsey AR, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, et al. The effect of technique change on knee loads during sidestep cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1765–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Devita P, Skelly WA. Effect of landing stiffness on joint kinetics and energetics in the lower extremity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(1):108–15.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Donnelly CJ, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, et al. Optimizing whole-body kinematics to minimize valgus knee loading during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury risk. J Biomech. 2012;45(8):1491–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Durall CJ, Kernozek TW, Kersten M, et al. Associations between single-leg postural control and drop-landing mechanics in healthy women. J Sport Rehabil. 2011;20(4):406–18.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Edwards S, Steele JR, McGhee DE. Does a drop landing represent a whole skill landing and is this moderated by fatigue? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(3):516–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Fagenbaum R, Darling WG. Jump landing strategies in male and female college athletes and the implications of such strategies for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(2):233–40.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Fedie R, Carlstedt K, Willson JD, et al. Effect of attending to a ball during a side-cut maneuver on lower extremity biomechanics in male and female athletes. Sports Biomech. 2010;9(3):165–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Valgus knee motion during landing in high school female and male basketball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(10):1745–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Longitudinal effects of maturation on lower extremity joint stiffness in adolescent athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(9):1829–37.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Ford KR, Myer GD, Smith RL, et al. A comparison of dynamic coronal plane excursion between matched male and female athletes when performing single leg landings. Clin Biomech. 2006;21(1):33–40.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Ford KR, Myer GD, Toms HE, et al. Gender differences in the kinematics of unanticipated cutting in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):124–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Ford KR, Shapiro R, Myer GD, et al. Longitudinal sex differences during landing in knee abduction in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):1923–31.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Garrison JC, Hart JM, Palmieri RM, et al. Lower extremity EMG in male and female college soccer players during single-leg landing. J Sport Rehabil. 2005;14(1):48–57.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Greska EK, Cortes N, Van Lunen BL, et al. A feedback inclusive neuromuscular training program alters frontal plane kinematics. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(6):1609–19.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Hass CJ, Schick EA, Tillman MD, et al. Knee biomechanics during landings: comparison of pre- and postpubescent females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):100–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Havens KH, Sigward SM, Cheng WC, et al. The relationship between frontal plane knee separation distance and lower extremity joint angles during a drop land: implications for clinical screening. J Athl Train. 2010;45(5):540.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Herman DC, Oñate JA, Weinhold PS, et al. The effects of feedback with and without strength training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(7):1301–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Herrington L. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3427–32.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Herrington L. Knee valgus angle during landing tasks in female volleyball and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):262–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Herrington L, Munro A. Drop jump landing knee valgus angle: normative data in a physically active population. Phys Ther Sport. 2010;11(2):56–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Hollman JH, Hohl JM, Kraft JL, et al. Effects of hip extensor fatigue on lower extremity kinematics during a jump-landing task in women: a controlled laboratory study. Clin Biomech. 2012;27(9):903–9.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Hollman JH, Hohl JM, Kraft JL, et al. Modulation of frontal-plane knee kinematics by hip-extensor strength and gluteus maximus recruitment during a jump-landing task in healthy women. J Sport Rehabil. 2013;22(3):184–90.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Horita T, Komi PV, Nicol C, et al. Interaction between pre-landing activities and stiffness regulation of the knee joint musculoskeletal system in the drop jump: implications to performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;88(1–2):76–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Howard JS, Fazio MA, Mattacola CG, et al. Structure, sex, and strength and knee and hip kinematics during landing. J Athl Train. 2011;46(4):376–85.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Hughes G, Watkins J, Owen N. Gender differences in lower limb frontal plane kinematics during landing. Sports Biomech. 2008;7(3):333–41.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Jacobs C, Mattacola C. Sex differences in eccentric hip-abductor strength and knee-joint kinematics when landing from a jump. J Sport Rehabil. 2005;14(4):346–55.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Jacobs CA, Uhl TL, Mattacola CG, et al. Hip abductor function and lower extremity landing kinematics: sex differences. J Athl Train. 2007;42(1):76–83.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. James CR, Scheuermann BW, Smith MP. Effects of two neuromuscular fatigue protocols on landing performance. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;20(4):667–75.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. James CR, Sizer PS, Starch DW, et al. Gender differences among sagittal plane knee kinematic and ground reaction force characteristics during a rapid sprint and cut maneuver. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004;75(1):31–8.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. Jamison ST, McNally MP, Schmitt LC, et al. The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury. J Biomech. 2013;46(13):2236–41.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. Jamison ST, Pan X, Chaudhari AMW. Knee moments during run-to-cut maneuvers are associated with lateral trunk positioning. J Biomech. 2012;45(11):1881–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Janssen I, Sheppard JM, Dingley AA, et al. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics when landing from unloaded and loaded jumps. J Appl Biomech. 2012;28(6):687–93.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. Joseph MF, Rahl M, Sheehan J, et al. Timing of lower extremity frontal plane motion differs between female and male athletes during a landing task. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(7):1517–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  101. Kernozek TW, Torry MR, Iwasaki M. Gender differences in lower extremity landing mechanics caused by neuromuscular fatigue. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(3):554–65.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  102. Kernozek TW, Torry MR, Van Hoof H, et al. Gender differences in frontal and sagittal plane biomechanics during drop landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):1003–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. Kipp K, McLean SG, Palmieri-Smith RM. Patterns of hip flexion motion predict frontal and transverse plane knee torques during a single-leg land-and-cut maneuver. Clin Biomech. 2011;26(5):504–8.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Kristianslund E, Faul O, Bahr R, et al. Sidestep cutting technique and knee abduction loading: implications for ACL prevention exercises. Br J Sports Med. Epub 6 Apr 2013.

  105. Laffaye G, Choukou MA. Gender bias in the effect of dropping height on jumping performance in volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(8):2143–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  106. Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, et al. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated run and crosscut maneuver. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(11):1901–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  107. Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, et al. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(11):1888–900.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Lee S, Chang J, Choi Y. Low limb muscle activation and joint angle in the sagittal plane during drop landing from various heights. J Phys Ther Sci. 2011;23(2):303–5.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Lephart S, Ferris C, Riemann B, et al. Gender differences in neuromuscular patterns and landing strategies. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(10):941–2.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Lephart SM, Ferris CM, Riemann BL, et al. Gender differences in strength and lower extremity kinematics during landing. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;401:162–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  111. Lim BO, Lee YS, Kim JG, et al. Effects of sports injury prevention training on the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(9):1728–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  112. Mache MA, Hoffman MA, Hannigan K, et al. Effects of decision making on landing mechanics as a function of task and sex. Clin Biomech. 2013;28(1):104–9.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Madigan ML, Pidcoe PE. Changes in landing biomechanics during a fatiguing landing activity. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003;13(5):491–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  114. Malinzak RA, Colby SM, Kirkendall DT, et al. A comparison of knee joint motion patterns between men and women in selected athletic tasks. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(5):438–45.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. McLean SG, Lucey SM, Rohrer S, et al. Knee joint anatomy predicts high-risk in vivo dynamic landing knee biomechanics. Clin Biomech. 2010;25(8):781–8.

    Google Scholar 

  116. McLean SG, Neal RJ, Myers PT, et al. Knee joint kinematics during the sidestep cutting maneuver: potential for injury in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(7):959–68.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. McLean SG, van den Bogert AJ. Knee kinematics during sidestep cutting: potential for ACL injury in females. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(10):954–5.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Milner CE, Fairbrother JT, Srivatsan A, et al. Simple verbal instruction improves knee biomechanics during landing in female athletes. Knee. 2012;19(4):399–403.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  119. Miranda DL, Fadale PD, Hulstyn MJ, et al. Knee biomechanics during a jump-cut maneuver: effects of sex and ACL surgery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(5):942–51.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  120. Mokhtarzadeh H, Yeow CH, Goh JCH, et al. Contributions of the soleus and gastrocnemius to the anterior cruciate ligament loading during single-leg landing. J Biomech. 2013;46(11):1913–20.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. Munro A, Herrington L, Comfort P. Comparison of landing knee valgus angle between female basketball and football athletes: possible implications for anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral joint injury rates. Phys Ther Sport. 2012;13(4):259–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. Myer GD, Ford KR, Brent JL, et al. Differential neuromuscular training effects on ACL injury risk factors in “high-risk” versus “low-risk” athletes. BMC Muscoskelet Disord. 2007;8:39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Myer GD, Ford KR, McLean SG, et al. The effects of plyometric versus dynamic stabilization and balance training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(3):445–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  124. Myer GD, Ford KR, Palumbo JP, et al. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(1):51–60.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  125. Nagano Y, Hirofumi I, Akai M, et al. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Tech. 2011;3(1):14–21.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Niu W, Zhang M, Fan Y, et al. Dynamic postural stability for double-leg drop landing. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(10):1074–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  127. Norcross MF, Lewek MD, Padua DA, et al. Lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanics during landing. Part II: frontal-plane energy analyses and interplanar relationships. J Athl Train. 2013;48(6):757–63.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  128. Norcross MF, Lewek MD, Padua DA, et al. Lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanics during landing. Part I: sagittal-plane energy absorption analyses. J Athl Train. 2013;48(6):748–56.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. Nyland J, Burden R, Krupp R, et al. Single leg jumping neuromuscular control is improved following whole body, long-axis rotational training. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2011;21(2):348–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  130. O’Connor KM, Monteiro SK, Hoelker IA. Comparison of selected lateral cutting activities used to assess ACL injury risk. J Appl Biomech. 2009;25(1):9–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  131. Onate JA, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, et al. Instruction of jump-landing technique using videotape feedback: altering lower extremity motion patterns. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(6):831–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  132. Pappas E, Carpes FP. Lower extremity kinematic asymmetry in male and female athletes performing jump-landing tasks. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(1):87–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. Pappas E, Hagins M, Sheikhzadeh A, et al. Biomechanical differences between unilateral and bilateral landings from a jump: gender differences. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(4):263–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. Pappas E, Sheikhzadeh A, Hagins M, et al. The effect of gender and fatigue on the biomechanics of bilateral landings from a jump: peak values. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6(1):77–84.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  135. Patrek MF, Kernozek TW, Willson JD, et al. Hip-abductor fatigue and single-leg landing mechanics in women athletes. J Athl Train. 2011;46(1):31–42.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  136. Pollard CD, Davis IM, Hamill J. Influence of gender on hip and knee mechanics during a randomly cued cutting maneuver. Clin Biomech. 2004;19(10):1022–31.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Pollard CD, Sigward SM, Ota S, et al. The influence of in-season injury prevention training on lower-extremity kinematics during landing in female soccer players. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16(3):223–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  138. Pollard CD, Sigward SM, Powers CM. Gender differences in hip joint kinematics and kinetics during side-step cutting maneuver. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(1):38–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  139. Salci Y, Kentel BB, Heycan C, et al. Comparison of landing maneuvers between male and female college volleyball players. Clin Biomech. 2004;19(6):622–8.

    Google Scholar 

  140. Sell TC, Ferris CM, Abt JP, et al. The effect of direction and reaction on the neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristics of the knee during tasks that simulate the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(1):43–54.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Shapiro R, Yates J, McClay I, et al. Male-female biomechanical differences in selected landing maneuvers. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(10):956–7.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Shultz SJ, Schmitz RJ. Effects of transverse and frontal plane knee laxity on hip and knee neuromechanics during drop landings. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(9):1821–30.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  143. Sigward S, Powers CM. The influence of experience on knee mechanics during side-step cutting in females. Clin Biomech. 2006;21(7):740–7.

    Google Scholar 

  144. Sigward SM, Havens KL, Powers CM. Knee separation distance and lower extremity kinematics during a drop land: implications for clinical screening. J Athl Train. 2011;46(5):471–5.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  145. Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Havens KL, et al. Influence of sex and maturation on knee mechanics during side-step cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(8):1497–503.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  146. Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Powers CM. The influence of sex and maturation on landing biomechanics: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;22(4):502–9.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  147. Sigward SM, Powers CM. Loading characteristics of females exhibiting excessive valgus moments during cutting. Clin Biomech. 2007;22(7):827–33.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Smith MP, Sizer PS, James CR. Effects of fatigue on frontal plane knee motion, muscle activity, and ground reaction forces in men and women during landing. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(3):419–27.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  149. Smith R, Ford KR, Myer GD, et al. Biomechanical and performance differences between female soccer athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):470–6.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  150. Stearns KM, Keim RG, Powers CM. Influence of relative hip and knee extensor muscle strength on landing biomechanics. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(5):935–41.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  151. Swartz EE, Decoster LC, Russell PJ, et al. Effects of developmental stage and sex on lower extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces during landing. J Athl Train. 2005;40(1):9–14.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  152. Tate JJ, Milner CE, Fairbrother JT, et al. The effects of a home-based instructional program aimed at improving frontal plane knee biomechanics during a jump-landing task. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(7):486–94.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  153. Tsai L, Sigward SM, Pollard CD, et al. Effects of fatigue and recovery on knee mechanics during side-step cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(10):1952–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  154. Walsh MS, Waters J, Kersting UG. Gender bias on the effects of instruction on kinematic and kinetic jump parameters of high-level athletes. Res Sports Med. 2007;15(4):283–95.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  155. Weinhandl JT, Earl-Boehm JE, Ebersole KT, et al. Anticipatory effects on anterior cruciate ligament loading during sidestep cutting. Clin Biomech. 2013;28(6):655–63.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Wilderman DR, Ross SE, Padua DA. Thigh muscle activity, knee motion, and impact force during side-step pivoting in agility-trained female basketball players. J Athl Train. 2009;44(1):14–25.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  157. Wilkerson GB, Colston MA, Short NI, et al. Neuromuscular changes in female collegiate athletes resulting from a plyometric jump-training program. J Athl Train. 2004;39(1):17–23.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  158. Xie D, Urabe Y, Ochiai J, et al. Sidestep cutting maneuvers in female basketball players: stop phase poses greater risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee. 2013;20(2):85–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  159. Yeow CH, Lee PVS, Goh JCH. Effect of landing height on frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energy dissipation at lower extremity joints. J Biomech. 2009;42(12):1967–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  160. Yeow CH, Lee PVS, Goh JCH. Sagittal knee joint kinematics and energetics in response to different landing heights and techniques. Knee. 2010;17(2):127–31.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  161. Yeow CH, Lee PVS, Goh JCH. An investigation of lower extremity energy dissipation strategies during single-leg and double-leg landing based on sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics. Hum Mov Sci. 2011;30(3):624–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  162. Zifchock BA, Pratt K, Brown A, et al. Knee kinematic coupling in males and females: open and closed-chain tasks. J Appl Biomech. 2012;28(3):291–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  163. Beaulieu ML, Lamontagne M, Xu L. Lower limb muscle activity and kinematics of an unanticipated cutting manoeuvre: a gender comparison. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(8):968–76.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  164. Beaulieu ML, Palmieri-Smith RM. Real-time feedback on knee abduction moment does not improve frontal-plane knee mechanics during jump landings. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Epub 24 Jan 2013.

  165. Chappell JD, Limpisvasti O. Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(6):1081–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  166. Cortes N, Quammen D, Lucci S, et al. A functional agility short-term fatigue protocol changes lower extremity mechanics. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(8):797–805.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  167. Earl JE, Monteiro SK, Snyder KR. Differences in lower extremity kinematics between a bilateral drop-vertical jump and a single-leg step-down. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37(5):245–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  168. Ford KR, Myer GD, Smith RL, et al. Use of an overhead goal alters vertical jump performance and biomechanics. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):394–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  169. Gehring D, Melnyk M, Gollhofer A. Gender and fatigue have influence on knee joint control strategies during landing. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(1):82–7.

    Google Scholar 

  170. Geiser CF, O’Connor KM, Earl JE. Effects of isolated hip abductor fatigue on frontal plane knee mechanics. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(3):535–45.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  171. Harty CM, DuPont CE, Chmielewski TL, et al. Intertask comparison of frontal plane knee position and moment in female athletes during three distinct movement tasks. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(1):98–105.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  172. Iguchi J, Tateuchi H, Taniguchi M, et al. The effect of sex and fatigue on lower limb kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity during unanticipated side-step cutting. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;22(1):41–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  173. Jorrakate C, Vachalathiti R, Vongsirinavarat M, et al. Lower extremity joint posture and peak knee valgus moment during side-step cutting performed by males and females. J Phys Ther Sci. 2011;23(4):585–9.

    Google Scholar 

  174. Joseph M, Tiberio D, Baird JL, et al. Knee valgus during drop jumps in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(2):285–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  175. Kiriyama S, Sato H, Takahira N. Gender differences in rotation of the shank during single-legged drop landing and its relation to rotational muscle strength of the knee. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(1):167–74.

    Google Scholar 

  176. Kristianslund E, Krosshaug T. Comparison of drop jumps and sport-specific sidestep cutting: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(3):684–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  177. McCurdy K, Walker J, Saxe J, et al. The effect of short-term resistance training on hip and knee kinematics during vertical drop jumps. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(5):1257–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  178. McLean SG, Felin RE, Suedekum N, et al. Impact of fatigue on gender-based high-risk landing strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(3):502–14.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  179. McLean SG, Walker KB, van den Bogert AJ. Effect of gender on lower extremity kinematics during rapid direction changes: an integrated analysis of three sports movements. J Sci Med Sport. 2005;8(4):411–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  180. Nagano Y, Ida H, Akai M, et al. Gender differences in knee kinematics and muscle activity during single limb drop landing. Knee. 2007;14:218–23.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  181. Nagano Y, Ida H, Akai M, et al. Biomechanical characteristics of the knee joint in female athletes during tasks associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee. 2009;16(2):153–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  182. O’Connor KM, Bottum MC. Differences in cutting knee mechanics based on Principal Components Analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(4):867–78.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  183. Orishimo KF, Kremenic IJ, Pappas E, et al. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female professional dancers. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(11):2187–93.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  184. Ortiz A, Olson S, Libby CL, et al. Landing mechanics between noninjured women and women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction during 2 jump tasks. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(1):149–57.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  185. Russell KA, Palmieri RM, Zinder SM, et al. Sex differences in valgus knee angle during a single-leg drop jump. J Athl Train. 2006;41(2):166–71.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  186. Sanna G, O’Connor KM. Fatigue-related changes in stance leg mechanics during sidestep cutting maneuvers. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(7):946–54.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Schmitz RJ, Kulas AS, Perrin DH, et al. Sex differences in lower extremity biomechanics during single leg landings. Clin Biomech. 2007;22(6):681–8.

    Google Scholar 

  188. Shultz SJ, Nguyen A, Leonard MD, et al. Thigh strength and activation as predictors of knee biomechanics during a drop jump task. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(4):857–66.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  189. Weinhandl JT, Joshi M, O’Connor KM. Gender comparisons between unilateral and bilateral landings. J Appl Biomech. 2010;26(4):444–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  190. Hollman JH, Ginos BE, Kozuchowski J, et al. Relationships between knee valgus, hip-muscle strength, and hip-muscle recruitment during a single-limb step-down. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(1):104–17.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  191. Taylor KA, Terry ME, Utturkar GM, et al. Measurement of in vivo anterior cruciate ligament strain during dynamic jump landing. J Biomech. 2011;44(3):365–71.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  192. Mizuno K, Andrish JT, van den Bogert AJ, et al. Gender dimorphic ACL strain in response to combined dynamic 3D knee joint loading: implications for ACL injury risk. Knee. 2009;16(6):432–40.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  193. McLean SG. The ACL injury enigma: we can’t prevent what we don’t understand. J Athl Train. 2008;43(5):538–40.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  194. Cerulli G, Benoit DL, Lamontagne M, et al. In vivo anterior cruciate ligament strain behaviour during a rapid deceleration movement: case report. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2003;11(5):307–11.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  195. Shin CS, Chaudhari AM, Andriacchi TP. The influence of deceleration forces on ACL strain during single-leg landing: a simulation study. J Biomech. 2007;40(5):1145–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  196. Utturkar GM, Irribarra LA, Taylor KA, et al. The effects of a valgus collapse knee position on in vivo ACL elongation. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41(1):123–30.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  197. Shultz SJ, Schmitz RJ, Benjaminse A, et al. ACL Research Retreat VI: an update on ACL injury risk and prevention. J Athl Train. 2012;47(5):591–603.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  198. Cowling EJ, Steele JR. Is lower limb muscle synchrony during landing affected by gender? Implications for variations in ACL injury rates. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2001;11(4):263–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  199. Walsh M, Boling MC, McGrath M, et al. Lower extremity muscle activation and knee flexion during a jump-landing task. J Athl Train. 2012;47(4):406–13.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  200. Bartlett R, Wheat J, Robins M. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists? Sports Biomech. 2007;6(2):224–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  201. Chappell JD, Yu B, Kirkendall DT, et al. A comparison of knee kinetics between male and female recreational athletes in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(2):261–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  202. Houck JR, Duncan A, Haven KED. Comparison of frontal plane trunk kinematics and hip and knee moments during anticipated and unanticipated walking and side step cutting tasks. Gait Posture. 2006;24(3):314–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  203. Kulas A, Zalewski P, Hortobagyi T, et al. Effects of added trunk load and corresponding trunk position adaptations on lower extremity biomechanics during drop-landings. J Biomech. 2008;41(1):180–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  204. Myer GD, Sugimoto D, Thomas S, et al. The influence of age on the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(1):203–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  205. Butler RJ, Dai B, Garrett WE Jr, et al. Changes in lower extremity mechanics during a stop jump from 6 to 12 months following ACL reconstruction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(5):S185–6.

    Google Scholar 

  206. Decker MJ, Torry MR, Noonan TJ, et al. Landing adaptations after ACL reconstruction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(9):1408–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  207. Edwards S, Steele JR, McGhee DE, et al. Landing strategies of athletes with an asymptomatic patellar tendon abnormality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(11):2072–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  208. Oberländer KD, Brüggemann GP, Höher J, et al. Altered landing mechanics in ACL-reconstructed patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(3):506–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

No external funding was provided for the production of this manuscript. Aaron Fox, Jason Bonacci, Scott McLean, Michael Spittle and Natalie Saunders declare there are no conflicts of interest associated with the production of this manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Natalie Saunders.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fox, A.S., Bonacci, J., McLean, S.G. et al. What is Normal? Female Lower Limb Kinematic Profiles During Athletic Tasks Used to Examine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk: A Systematic Review. Sports Med 44, 815–832 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0168-8

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0168-8

Keywords

Navigation