Pacing and Decision Making in Sport and Exercise: The Roles of Perception and Action in the Regulation of Exercise Intensity

Abstract

In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent views on understanding underlying mechanisms of decision making in pacing. Current pacing literature provides a wide range of aspects that might be involved in the determination of an athlete’s pacing strategy, but lacks in explaining how perception and action are coupled in establishing behaviour. In contrast, decision-making literature rooted in the understanding that perception and action are coupled provides refreshing perspectives on explaining the mechanisms that underlie natural interactive behaviour. Contrary to the assumption of behaviour that is managed by a higher-order governor that passively constructs internal representations of the world, an ecological approach is considered. According to this approach, knowledge is rooted in the direct experience of meaningful environmental objects and events in individual environmental processes. To assist a neuropsychological explanation of decision making in exercise regulation, the relevance of the affordance competition hypothesis is explored. By considering pacing as a behavioural expression of continuous decision making, new insights on underlying mechanisms in pacing and optimal performance can be developed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Esteve-Lanao J, Lucia A, Foster C. How do humans control physiological strain during strenuous endurance exercise? PloS One. 2008;3(8):e2943.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ulmer HV. Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback. Experientia. 1996;52(5):416–20.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV, Rauch LHG, Tucker R, Baden DA, Foster C, et al. The role of information processing between the brain and peripheral physiological systems in pacing and perception of effort. Sports Med. 2006;36(8):705–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Baron B, Moullan F, Deruelle F, Noakes TD. The role of emotions on pacing strategies and performance in middle and long duration sport events. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(6):511–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Noakes TD. Time to move beyond a brainless exercise physiology: the evidence for complex regulation of human exercise performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(1):23–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Edwards AM, Polman RCJ. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity. Sports Med. 2013;43(9):1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Nikolopoulos V, Arkinstall MJ, Hawley JA. Pacing strategy in simulated cycle time-trials is based on perceived rather than actual distance. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(2):212–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Garland SW. An analysis of the pacing strategy adopted by elite competitors in 2000 m rowing. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(1):39–42.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hettinga FJ, De Koning JJ, Broersen FT, Van Geffen P, Foster C. Pacing strategy and the occurrence of fatigue in 4000-m cycling time trials. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(8):1484–91.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hettinga FJ, De Koning JJ, Schmidt LJI, Wind NAC, MacIntosh BR, Foster C. Optimal pacing strategy: from theoretical modelling to reality in 1500-m speed skating. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(1):30–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Albertus Y, Tucker R, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV, Hampson DB, Noakes TD. Effect of distance feedback on pacing strategy and perceived exertion during cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):461–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Eston R, Faulkner J, St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD, Parfitt G. The effect of antecedent fatiguing activity on the relationship between perceived exertion and physiological activity during a constant load exercise task. Psychophysiology. 2007;44(5):779–86.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Joseph T, Johnson B, Battista RA, Wright G, Dodge C, Porcari JP, et al. Perception of fatigue during simulated competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):381–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lander PJ, Butterly RJ, Edwards AM. Self-paced exercise is less physically challenging than enforced constant pace exercise of the same intensity: influence of complex central metabolic control. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(10):789–95.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Van Ingen SGJ, De Koning JJ, De Groot G. A simulation of speed skating performances based on a power equation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(5):718–28.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    De Koning JJ, Bobbert MF, Foster C. Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2(3):266–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hettinga FJ, De Koning JJ, Hulleman M, Foster C. Relative importance of pacing strategy and mean power output in 1500-m self-paced cycling. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(1):30–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Hansen EA, Andersen JL, Nielsen JS, Sjøgaard G. Muscle fibre type, efficiency, and mechanical optima affect freely chosen pedal rate during cycling. Acta Physiol Scand. 2002;176(3):185–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hastie R. Problems for judgment and decision making. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52(1):653–83.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Swart J, Lindsay TR, Lambert MI, Brown JC, Noakes TD. Perceptual cues in the regulation of exercise performance—physical sensations of exercise and awareness of effort interact as separate cues. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(1):42–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Davis JM, Bailey SP. Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(1):45–57.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV. From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):511–4.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Borg GA. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1970;2(2):92–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Hampson DB, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. The influence of sensory cues on the perception of exertion during exercise and central regulation of exercise performance. Sports Med. 2001;31(13):935–52.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Craig AD. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13(4):500–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD. Evidence for complex system integration and dynamic neural regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(6):797–806.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Lambert EV, St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD. Complex systems model of fatigue: integrative homoeostatic control of peripheral physiological systems during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(1):52–62.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Morgan WP, Pollock ML. Psychologic characterization of the elite distance runner. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1977;301(1):382–403.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Noakes TD. Rating of perceived exertion as a predictor of the duration of exercise that remains until exhaustion. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(7):623–4.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Edwards R, Melcher A, Hesser C, Wigertz O, Ekelund LG. Physiological correlates of perceived exertion in continuous and intermittent exercise with the same average power output. Eur J Clin Invest. 1972;2(2):108–14.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Borg GA. Perceived exertion: a note on “history” and methods. Med Sci Sports. 1973;5(2):90–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Sargeant AJ, Davies CT. Perceived exertion during rhythmic exercise involving different muscle masses. J Hum Ergol. 1973;2(1):3–11.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Skinner JS, Hutsler R, Bergsteinova V, Buskirk ER. Perception of effort during different types of exercise and under different environmental conditions. Med Sci Sports. 1973;5(2):110–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Stamford B. Validity and reliability of subjective ratings of perceived exertion during work. Ergonomics. 1976;19(1):53–60.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hugh Morton R. Deception by manipulating the clock calibration influences cycle ergometer endurance time in males. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(2):332–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Zamparo P, Perini R, Orizio C, Sacher M, Ferretti G. The energy cost of walking or running on sand. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(2):183–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Robertson R, Gilcher R, Metz K. Central circulation and work capacity after red blood cell reinfusion under normoxia and hypoxia in women. Med Sci Sports. 1979;11:98.

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Robertson RJ. Central signals of perceived exertion during dynamic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):390–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Boutcher SH, Trenske M. The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. J Sport Exerc Psych. 1990;12:167–76.

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Masters KS, Ogles BM. Associative and dissociative cognitive strategies in exercise and running: 20 years later, what do we know? Sport Psychol. 1998;12:253–70.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Knicker AJ, Renshaw I, Oldham ARH, Cairns SP. Interactive processes link the multiple symptoms of fatigue in sport competition. Sports Med. 2011;41(4):307–28.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Faulkner J, Parfitt G, Eston RG. The rating of perceived exertion during competitive running scales with time. Psychophysiology. 2008;45(6):977–85.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Poulus AJ, Docter HJ, Westra HG. Acid-base balance and subjective feelings of fatigue during physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1974;33(3):207–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Robertson RJ, Falkel JE, Drash AL, Swank A, Metz KF, Spungen SA, et al. Effect of blood pH on peripheral and central signals of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986;18(1):114–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hetzler RK, Seip RL, Boutcher SH, Pierce E, Snead D, Weltman A. Effect of exercise modality on ratings of perceived exertion at various lactate concentrations. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(1):88–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Swart J, Lamberts RP, Lambert MI, Lambert EV, Woolrich RW, Johnston S, et al. Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(10):775–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    De Koning JJ, Foster C, Bakkum A, Kloppenburg S, Thiel C, Joseph T, et al. Regulation of pacing strategy during athletic competition. PloS One. 2011;6(1):e15863.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Bonacci J, Vleck V, Saunders PU, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Rating of perceived exertion during cycling is associated with subsequent running economy in triathletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(1):49–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Coyle EF, Montain SJ. Benefits of fluid replacement with carbohydrate during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:324–30.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Pandolf KB, Kamon E, Noble BJ. Perceived exertion and physiological responses during negative and positive work in climbing a laddermill. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1978;18(3):227–36.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Noakes TD. Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;10(3):123–45.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Burgess ML, Robertson RJ, Davis JM, Norris JM. RPE, blood glucose, and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise: effects of glucose feedings. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(3):353–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Walsh RM, Noakes TD, Hawley JA, Dennis SC. Impaired high-intensity cycling performance time at low levels of dehydration. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15(7):392–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Noakes TD, Snow RJ, Febbraio MA. Linear relationship between the perception of effort and the duration of constant load exercise that remains. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(4):1571–3.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Edwards AM, Mann ME, Marfell-Jones MJ, Rankin DM, Noakes TD, Shillington DP. Influence of moderate dehydration on soccer performance: physiological responses to 45 min of outdoor match-play and the immediate subsequent performance of sport-specific and mental concentration tests. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(6):385–91.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Lima-Silva A, De-Oliveira F, Nakamura F, Gevaerd M. Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009;42(5):404–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Wilmore JH. Influence of motivation on physical work capacity and performance. J Appl Physiol. 1968;24(4):459–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Lehmann G, Straub H, Szakall A. Pervitin als leistungssteigerndes mittel. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1939;10(6):680–91.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Alles GA, Feigen GA. The influence of benzedrine on work-decrement and patellar reflex. Am J Physiol. 1942;136(3):392–400.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Roush ES. Strength and endurance in the waking and hypnotic states. J Appl Physiol. 1951;3(7):404–10.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Ikai M, Steinhaus AH. Some factors modifying the expression of human strength. J Appl Physiol. 1961;16(1):157–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Hill AV, Long CNH, Lupton H. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilisation of oxygen. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1924;97(681):84–138.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Noakes TD. 1996 JB Wolffe Memorial Lecture. Challenging beliefs: ex Africa semper aliquid novi. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(5):571–90.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Tucker R, Bester A, Lambert E, Noakes TD, Vaughan CL, St Clair Gibson A. Non-random fluctuations in power output during self-paced exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(11):912–7.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A. Logical limitations to the “catastrophe” models of fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(5):648–9.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Kay D, Marino FE, Cannon J, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. Evidence for neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity cycling in warm, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(1):115–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Tucker R, Rauch L, Harley YXR, Noakes TD. Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitment. Pflugers Arch. 2004;448(4):422–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Weir JP, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Housh TJ. Is fatigue all in your head? A critical review of the central governor model. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(7):573–86.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    MacIntosh BR, Shahi MRS. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction. Appl Physiol Nutr Metabol. 2010;36(1):1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Marcora SM. Do we really need a central governor to explain brain regulation of exercise performance? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(5):929–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Edwards AM, Polman RCJ. Pacing in sport and exercise: a psychophysiological perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Cabanac M. Exertion and pleasure from an evolutionary perspective. In: Ekkekakis E, editor. Psychobiology of physical activity. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2006. p. 79–89.

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Noakes TD. Testing for maximum oxygen consumption has produced a brainless model of human exercise performance. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(7):551–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Describing and understanding pacing strategies during athletic competition. Sports Med. 2008;38(3):239–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Roelands B, De Koning JJ, Foster C, Hettinga FJ, Meeusen R. Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing. Sports Med. 2013;43(5):301–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Abernethy B. Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport. Int J Sport Psychol. 1991;22(3–4):189–210.

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Gréhaigne JF, Godbout P, Bouthier D. The teaching and learning of decision making in team sports. Quest. 2001;53(1):59–76.

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Baker J, Cote J, Abernethy B. Sport-specific practice and the development of expert decision-making in team ball sports. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2003;15(1):12–25.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Tenenbaum G. Expert athletes: an integrated approach to decision making. In: Starkes JL, Ericsson KA, editors. Expert performance in sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2003. p. 191–218.

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Tomporowski PD. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychol. 2003;112(3):297–324.

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    McMorris T, Sproule J, Turner A, Hale BJ. Acute, intermediate intensity exercise, and speed and accuracy in working memory tasks: a meta-analytical comparison of effects. Physiol Behav. 2011;102(3):421–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    McMorris T, Hale BJ. Differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition: a meta-analytical investigation. Brain Cogn. 2012;80(3):338–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Zijdewind I, Van Duinen H, Zielman R, Lorist MM. Interaction between force production and cognitive performance in humans. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117(3):660–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am Psychol. 1982;37(2):122–47.

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Stoter IK, MacIntosh BR, Fletcher JR, Pootz S, Zijdewind I, Hettinga FJ. The effect of pacing strategy on muscle fatigue and technique in 1500 m speed skating and cycling [poster]. In: Meeusen R, Duchateau J, Roelands B, Klass M, De Geus B, Baudry S, et al., editors. Book of Abstracts of the 17th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science—4−7th July ECSS Bruges 2012 – Belgium. Cologne: European College of Sport Science; 2012. p. 167.

  87. 87.

    Cisek P. Cortical mechanisms of action selection: the affordance competition hypothesis. Philos Trans R Soc B. 2007;362(1485):1585–99.

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Cisek P, Kalaska JF. Neural mechanisms for interacting with a world full of action choices. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2010;33:269–98.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Miller GA, Galanter E, Pribram KH. Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Keele SW. Movement control in skilled motor performance. Psychol Bull. 1968;70(6):387–403.

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Newell A, Simon HA. Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Pylyshyn ZW. Computation and cognition: towards a foundation for cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press; 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Jones G. What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2002;14(3):205–18.

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Gibson JJ. The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Gibson EJ, Pick AD. An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Gibson JJ. The concept of affordances. In: Shaw R, Bransford J, editors. Perceiving, acting, and knowing. Hillsdale: Erlbaum; 1977. p. 67–82.

    Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Beer RD. The dynamics of active categorical perception in an evolved model agent. Adapt Behav. 2003;11(4):209–43.

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Araujo D, Davids K, Hristovski R. The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2006;7(6):653–76.

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Smith J, Pepping G-J. Effects of affordance perception on the initiation and actualization of action. Ecol Psychol. 2010;22(2):119–49.

    Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Headrick J, Davids K, Renshaw I, Araújo D, Passos P, Fernandes O. Proximity-to-goal as a constraint on patterns of behaviour in attacker-defender dyads in team games. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(3):247–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Travassos B, Araújo D, Davids K, Vilar L, Esteves P, Vanda C. Informational constraints shape emergent functional behaviours during performance of interceptive actions in team sports. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;13(2):216–23.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Barsingerhorn AD, Zaal FTJM, de Poel HJ, Pepping G-J. Shaping decisions in volleyball: an ecological approach to decision-making in volleyball passing. Int J Sport Psychol. 2013;44(3):197–214.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Williams AM. Perceptual skill in soccer: implications for talent identification and development. J Sports Sci. 2000;18(9):737–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Schmidt RC. Scaffolds for social meaning. Ecol Psychol. 2007;19(2):137–51.

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Chemero A. Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Withagen R, Chemero A. Naturalizing perception. Theory Psychol. 2009;19(3):363–89.

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Turvey MT, Shaw RE. Toward an ecological physics and a physical psychology. In: Solso RL, Massaro DW, editors. The science of the mind: 2001 and beyond. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995. p. 144–72.

    Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Smith J, Zaal FJTM, Pepping G-J. Emergence of grasping: the transition between 2-digit and 3-digit grip configurations [poster]. Mastery of Manual Skills; 19–21 Apr 2012; Groningen.

  109. 109.

    Pinder RA, Davids K, Renshaw I. Metastability and emergent performance of dynamic interceptive actions. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(5):437–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Pepping G-J, Heijmerikx J, de Poel HJ. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football: effects of distance and social context. Rev Psicol Deporte. 2011;20(2):709–27.

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Hristovski R, Davids K, Araújo D, Button C. How boxers decide to punch a target: emergent behaviour in nonlinear dynamical movement systems. J Sports Sci Med. 2006;5((CSSI)):60–73.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Cui H, Andersen RA. Posterior parietal cortex encodes autonomously selected motor plans. Neuron. 2007;56(3):552–9.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Buschman TJ, Miller EK. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science. 2007;315(5820):1860–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Charnov EL. Optimal foraging: attack strategy of a mantid. Am Nat. 1976;110(971):141–51.

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Krebs JR, Erichsen JT, Webber MI, Charnov EL. Optimal prey selection in the great tit (Parus major). Anim Behav. 1977;25(1):30–8.

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Goss-Custard JD. Optimal foraging and the size selection of worms by redshank, Tringa totanus, in the field. Anim Behav. 1977;25(1):10–29.

    Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Heinrich B. Bumblebee economics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Pyke GH, Pulliam HR, Charnov EL. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Q Rev Biol. 1977;52(2):137–54.

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Milinski M, Heller R. Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). Nature. 1978;275:642–55.

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Stein RA. Behavioral response of prey to fish predators. In: Stroud RH, Clepper HE, editors. Predator-prey systems in fisheries management. Washington, DC: Sport Fishing Institute; 1979. p. 343–53.

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Sih A. Optimal behavior: can foragers balance two conflicting demands? Science. 1980;210(4473):1040–3.

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Grubb TC, Greenwald L. Sparrows and a brushpile: foraging responses to different combinations of predation risk and energy cost. Anim Behav. 1982;30(3):637–40.

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Eaton RL. Hunting behavior of the cheetah. J Wildl Manag. 1970;34(1):56–67.

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Rudebeck PH, Walton ME, Smyth AN, Bannerman DM, Rushworth MFS. Separate neural pathways process different decision costs. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9(9):1161–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Walton ME, Kennerley SW, Bannerman DM, Phillips PEM, Rushworth MFS. Weighing up the benefits of work: behavioral and neural analyses of effort-related decision making. Neural Netw. 2006;19(8):1302–14.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Barsingerhorn AD, Zaal FTJM, Smith J, Pepping G-J. On possibilities for action: the past, present and future of affordance research. Avant. 2012;3(2):54–69.

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Tanaka M, Watanabe Y. Supraspinal regulation of physical fatigue. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36(1):727–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Hilty L, Langer N, Pascual-Marqui R, Boutellier U, Lutz K. Fatigue-induced increase in intracortical communication between mid/anterior insular and motor cortex during cycling exercise. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34(12):2035–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Araujo D, Davids K, Passos P. Ecological validity, representative design, and correspondence between experimental task constraints and behavioral setting. Ecol Psychol. 2007;19(1):69–78.

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Araujo D, Davids K. Ecological approaches to cognition and action in sport and exercise: ask not only what you do, but where you do it. Int J Sport Psychol. 2009;40(1):5.

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Brunswik E. Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1956.

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Parry D, Chinnasamy C, Micklewright D. Optic flow influences perceived exertion during cycling. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;34(4):444–56.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Dicks M, Davids K, Button C. Individual differences in the visual control of intercepting a penalty kick in association football. Hum Mov Sci. 2010;29(3):401–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Karageorghis CI, Priest D-L. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (part I). Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;5(1):44–66.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Karageorghis CI, Terry PC, Lane AM, Bishop DT, Priest D-L. The BASES expert statement on use of music in exercise. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(9):953–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Florentina J. Hettinga.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Smits, B.L.M., Pepping, GJ. & Hettinga, F.J. Pacing and Decision Making in Sport and Exercise: The Roles of Perception and Action in the Regulation of Exercise Intensity. Sports Med 44, 763–775 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0163-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Exercise Intensity
  • Pace Strategy
  • Action Capability
  • Circumstantial Factor
  • Information Processing Approach