Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 671–686 | Cite as

Measuring and Influencing Physical Activity with Smartphone Technology: A Systematic Review

  • Judit Bort-RoigEmail author
  • Nicholas D. Gilson
  • Anna Puig-Ribera
  • Ruth S. Contreras
  • Stewart G. Trost
Systematic Review



Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in physical activity research, although little is known regarding their effectiveness as measurement and intervention tools.


This study systematically reviewed evidence on smartphones and their viability for measuring and influencing physical activity.

Data Sources

Research articles were identified in September 2013 by literature searches in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect.

Study Selection

The search was restricted using the terms (physical activity OR exercise OR fitness) AND (smartphone* OR mobile phone* OR cell phone*) AND (measurement OR intervention). Reviewed articles were required to be published in international academic peer-reviewed journals, or in full text from international scientific conferences, and focused on measuring physical activity through smartphone processing data and influencing people to be more active through smartphone applications.

Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

Two reviewers independently performed the selection of articles and examined titles and abstracts to exclude those out of scope. Data on study characteristics, technologies used to objectively measure physical activity, strategies applied to influence activity; and the main study findings were extracted and reported.


A total of 26 articles (with the first published in 2007) met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in highly economically advantaged countries; 12 articles focused on special populations (e.g. obese patients). Studies measured physical activity using native mobile features, and/or an external device linked to an application. Measurement accuracy ranged from 52 to 100 % (n = 10 studies). A total of 17 articles implemented and evaluated an intervention. Smartphone strategies to influence physical activity tended to be ad hoc, rather than theory-based approaches; physical activity profiles, goal setting, real-time feedback, social support networking, and online expert consultation were identified as the most useful strategies to encourage physical activity change. Only five studies assessed physical activity intervention effects; all used step counts as the outcome measure. Four studies (three pre–post and one comparative) reported physical activity increases (12–42 participants, 800–1,104 steps/day, 2 weeks–6 months), and one case-control study reported physical activity maintenance (n = 200 participants; >10,000 steps/day) over 3 months.


Smartphone use is a relatively new field of study in physical activity research, and consequently the evidence base is emerging.


Few studies identified in this review considered the validity of phone-based assessment of physical activity. Those that did report on measurement properties found average-to-excellent levels of accuracy for different behaviors. The range of novel and engaging intervention strategies used by smartphones, and user perceptions on their usefulness and viability, highlights the potential such technology has for physical activity promotion. However, intervention effects reported in the extant literature are modest at best, and future studies need to utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to better explore the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones.


Physical Activity Mobile Phone Step Count Physical Activity Promotion Daily Step 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



BRJ was supported by a predoctoral scholarship from the ‘Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación—Govierno de España’ (BES-2010-033252). The authors declare no potential conflict of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

JBR, NDG, ST, APR, and RSC contributed to the design of the review protocol. JBR conducted the database search. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of articles (NDG and JBR) and examined the titles and abstracts of the identified references to exclude articles out of scope. Any disagreements on study inclusions were resolved through discussions with another reviewer (ST) and a consensus reached. JBR, NDG, and ST assessed the eligible papers, extracted the data, and discussed the findings. JBR drafted the paper and NDG, ST, APR, and RSC reviewed the manuscript and contributed to subsequent drafts. All authors read and approved the final review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judit Bort-Roig
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Nicholas D. Gilson
    • 2
  • Anna Puig-Ribera
    • 1
  • Ruth S. Contreras
    • 3
  • Stewart G. Trost
    • 2
  1. 1.Grup de Recerca en Esport i Activitat FísicaUniversitat de VicBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.School of Human Movement StudiesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Grup de Recerca Interaccions DigitalsUniversitat de VicBrisbaneSpain
  4. 4.Centre d’Estudis Sanitaris i Socials, Carrer de la Sagrada Família, 7Universitat de VicBarcelona, CataloniaSpain

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