Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 9–23 | Cite as

The Pain of Tendinopathy: Physiological or Pathophysiological?

  • Ebonie Rio
  • Lorimer Moseley
  • Craig Purdam
  • Tom Samiric
  • Dawson Kidgell
  • Alan J. Pearce
  • Shapour Jaberzadeh
  • Jill Cook
Review Article

Abstract

Tendon pain remains an enigma. Many clinical features are consistent with tissue disruption—the pain is localised, persistent and specifically associated with tendon loading, whereas others are not—investigations do not always match symptoms and painless tendons can be catastrophically degenerated. As such, the question ‘what causes a tendon to be painful?’ remains unanswered. Without a proper understanding of the mechanism behind tendon pain, it is no surprise that treatments are often ineffective. Tendon pain certainly serves to protect the area—this is a defining characteristic of pain—and there is often a plausible nociceptive contributor. However, the problem of tendon pain is that the relation between pain and evidence of tissue disruption is variable. The investigation into mechanisms for tendon pain should extend beyond local tissue changes and include peripheral and central mechanisms of nociception modulation. This review integrates recent discoveries in diverse fields such as histology, physiology and neuroscience with clinical insight to present a current state of the art in tendon pain. New hypotheses for this condition are proposed, which focus on the potential role of tenocytes, mechanosensitive and chemosensitive receptors, the role of ion channels in nociception and pain and central mechanisms associated with load and threat monitoring.

Keywords

Patellar Tendon Pressure Pain Threshold Patellar Tendinopathy Secondary Hyperalgesia Tendon Pathology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

No funding was provided for the preparation of this manuscript and the authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebonie Rio
    • 1
  • Lorimer Moseley
    • 2
  • Craig Purdam
    • 3
  • Tom Samiric
    • 4
  • Dawson Kidgell
    • 5
  • Alan J. Pearce
    • 6
  • Shapour Jaberzadeh
    • 1
  • Jill Cook
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Primary Health CareMonash UniversityFrankstonAustralia
  2. 2.Sansom Institute for Health ResearchUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Physical TherapiesAustralian Institute of SportsBruceAustralia
  4. 4.School of Public Health and Human BiosciencesLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia
  6. 6.Faculty of Health, School of PsychologyDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia

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