Koch LG, Britton SL. Aerobic metabolism underlies complexity and capacity. J Physiol. 2008;586(1):83–95.
Wood B, Harrison T. The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature. 2011;470(7334):347–52.
Raichlen DA, Polk JD. Linking brains and brawn: exercise and the evolution of human neurobiology. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280(1750):20122250.
O’Keefe JH, Vogel R, Lavie CJ, et al. Achieving hunter–gatherer fitness in the 21st century: back to the future. Am J Med. 2010;123(12):1082–6.
O’Keefe JH, Vogel R, Lavie CJ, et al. Exercise like a hunter–gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;53(6):471–9.
Booth FW, Chakravarthy MV, Spangenburg EE. Exercise and gene expression: physiological regulation of the human genome through physical activity. J Physiol. 2002;543(Pt 2):399–411.
Booth FW, Chakravarthy MV, Gordon SE, et al. Waging war on physical inactivity: using modern molecular ammunition against an ancient enemy. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93(1):3–30.
Eaton SB, Konner M, Shostak M. Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med. 1988;84(4):739–49.
Booth FW, Gordon SE, Carlson CJ, et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(2):774–87.
Cordain L, Gotshall RW, Eaton SB, et al. Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness: an evolutionary perspective. Int J Sports Med. 1998;19(5):328–35.
Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiol Genomics. 2007;28(2):146–57.
Eaton SB, Strassman BI, Nesse RM, et al. Evolutionary health promotion. Prev Med. 2002;34(2):109–18.
Williams GC, Nesse RM. The dawn of Darwinian medicine. Q Rev Biol. 1991;66(1):1–22.
Lieberman DE. What we can learn about running from barefoot running: an evolutionary medical perspective. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2012;40(2):63–72.
Puthucheary Z, Skipworth JR, Rawal J, et al. The ACE gene and human performance: 12 years on. Sports Med. 2011;41(6):433–48.
Puthucheary Z, Skipworth JR, Rawal J, et al. Genetic influences in sport and physical performance. Sports Med. 2011;41(10):845–59.
Timmons JA, Knudsen S, Rankinen T, et al. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(6):1487–96.
Boullosa DA, Nakamura FY, Ruiz JR. Effectiveness of polarized training for rowing performance (letter). Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(4):431–2.
Cordain L, Friel J. The Paleolithic athlete: the original cross trainer. In: Sands RR, Sands LR, editors. The anthropology of sport and human movement: a biocultural perspective. Lanham: Lexington Books; 2010. p. 267–76.
Kuipers RS, Joordens JC, Muskiet FA. A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25(1):96–129.
Konner M, Eaton SB. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25(6):594–602.
Stiner MC. Thirty years on the “Broad Spectrum Revolution” and paleolithic demography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98(13):6993–6.
Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, et al. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter–gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(3):682–92.
Hochachka PW. Fuels and pathways as designed systems for support of muscle work. J Exp Biol. 1985;115:149–64.
Cerling TE, Wynn JG, Andanje SA, et al. Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature. 2011;476(7358):51–6.
Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, et al. Hunter–gatherer energetics and human obesity. PLos One. 2012;7(7):e40503.
Hochachka PW, Gunga HC, Kirsch K. Our ancestral physiological phenotype: an adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95(4):1915–20.
Dudley R. Limits to human locomotor performance: phylogenetic origins and comparative perspectives. J Exp Biol. 2001;204(Pt 18):3235–40.
Hochachka PW, Beatty CL, Burelle Y, et al. The lactate paradox in human high-altitude physiological performance. News Physiol Sci. 2002;17:122–6.
Hochachka PW, Rupert JL, Monge C. Adaptation and conservation of physiological systems in the evolution of human hypoxia tolerance. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1999;124(1):1–17.
Bramble DM, Lieberman DE. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature. 2004;432(7015):345–52.
Lieberman DE, Raichlen DA, Pontzer H, et al. The human gluteus maximus and its role in running. J Exp Biol. 2006;209(Pt 11):2143–55.
Pontzer H, Rolian C, Rightmire GP, et al. Locomotor anatomy and biomechanics of the Dmanisi hominins. J Hum Evol. 2010;58(6):492–504.
Rolian C, Lieberman DE, Hallgrímsson B. The coevolution of human hands and feet. Evolution. 2010;64(6):1558–68.
Liebenberg L. Persistence hunting by modern hunter–gatherers. Curr Anthropol. 2006;47(6):1017–25.
Lieberman DE, Bramble DM, Raichlen DA, et al. Brains, brawn, and the evolution of human endurance running capabilities. In: Grine FE, Fleagle JG, Leakey RE, editors. The first humans: origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 77–98.
Kempermann G, Fabel K, Ehninger D, et al. Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity. Front Neurosci. 2010;4(189):1–9.
Hurtado A, Hawkes K, Hill K, et al. Female subsistence strategies among Ache hunter–gatherers of eastern Paraguay. Hum Ecol. 1985;13(1):1–28.
Panter-Brick C. Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios. Am J Hum Biol. 2002;14(5):627–40.
Van Damme R, Wilson RS, Vanhooydonck B, et al. Performance constraints in decathletes. Nature. 2002;415(6873):755–6.
Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability—part II: recommendations for training. Sports Med. 2011;41(9):741–56.
Kiely J. Periodization paradigms in the 21st century: evidence-led or tradition-driven? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7(3):242–50.
Kiviniemi AM, Hautala AJ, Kinnunen H, et al. Endurance training guided individually by daily heart rate variability measurements. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;101(6):743–51.
Kiviniemi AM, Hautala AJ, Kinnunen H, et al. Daily exercise prescription on the basis of HR variability among men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(7):1355–63.
Ruuska PS, Hautala AJ, Kiviniemi AM, et al. Self-rated mental stress and exercise training response in healthy subjects. Front Physiol. 2012;3:51.
Bartholomew JB, Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Elrod CC, et al. Strength gains after resistance training: the effect of stressful, negative life events. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1215–21.
Ruiz JR, Morán M, Arenas J, et al. Strenuous endurance exercise improves life expectancy: it’s in our genes. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(3):159–61.
Sanchis-Gomar F, Olaso-Gonzalez G, Corella D, et al. Increased average longevity among the “Tour de France” cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(8):644–7.
Fiuza-Luces C, Ruiz JR, Rodríguez-Romo G, et al. Are ‘endurance’ alleles ‘survival’ alleles? Insights from the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17558.
Gómez-Gallego F, Ruiz JR, Buxens A, et al. Are elite endurance athletes genetically predisposed to lower disease risk? Physiol Genomics. 2010;41(1):82–90.
Kokkinos P, Myers J, Kokkinos JP, et al. Exercise capacity and mortality in Black and White men. Circulation. 2008;117(5):614–22.
Noakes TD. The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;618:255–76.
Mujika I, Chatard JC, Busso T, et al. Effects of training on performance in competitive swimming. Can J Appl Physiol. 1995;20(4):395–406.
Steinacker JM, Lormes W, Lehmann M, et al. Training of rowers before world championships. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(7):1158–63.
Fiskerstrand A, Seiler KS. Training and performance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970–2001. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(5):303–10.
Esteve-Lanao J, San Juan AF, Earnest CP, et al. How do endurance runners actually train? Relationship with competition performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):496–504.
Zapico AG, Calderón FJ, Benito PJ, et al. Evolution of physiological and haematological parameters with training load in elite male road cyclists: a longitudinal study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(2):191–6.
Ingham SA, Fudge BW, Pringle JS. Training distribution, physiological profile, and performance for a male international 1500-m runner. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7(2):193–5.
Neal CM, Hunter AM, Brennan L, et al. Six weeks of a polarized training-intensity distribution leads to greater physiological and performance adaptations than a threshold model in trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol. 2013;114(4):461–71.
Esteve-Lanao J, Foster C, Seiler S, et al. Impact of training intensity distribution on performance in endurance athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):943–9.
Laursen PB. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(Suppl. 2):1–10.
Iaia FM, Bangsbo J. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(Suppl. 2):11–23.
Škof B, Strojnik V. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery dynamics following prolonged continuous run at anaerobic threshold. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(3):219–22.
Seiler S, Haugen O, Kuffel E. Autonomic recovery after exercise in trained athletes: intensity and duration effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1366–73.
Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Med. 2009;39(6):469–90.
Ekkekakis P, Parfitt G, Petruzzello SJ. The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Med. 2011;41(8):641–71.
Issurin VB. Generalized training effects induced by athletic preparation: a review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2009;49(4):333–45.
Hautala A, Martinmaki K, Kiviniemi A, et al. Effects of habitual physical activity on response to endurance training. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(6):563–9.
Ross R, McGuire KA. Incidental physical activity is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(11):2189–94.
Bailey RC, Olson J, Pepper SL, et al. The level and tempo of children’s physical activities: an observational study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(7):1033–4.
Duncan JS, Badland HM, Schofield G. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: a feasibility study. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(5):583–5.
Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Castagna C, et al. Variation in top level soccer match performance. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(12):1018–24.
Dogramaci SN, Watsford ML, Murphy AJ. Time-motion analysis of international and national level futsal. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(3):646–51.
Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol. 2008;586(1):151–60.
Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al. Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol. 2006;575(Pt 3):901–11.
Docherty D, Sporer B. A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training. Sports Med. 2000;30(6):385–94.
Paavolainen L, Häkkinen K, Rusko H. Effects of explosive type strength training on physical performance characteristics in cross-country skiers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1991;62(4):251–5.
Paavolainen L, Häkkinen K, Hämäläinen I, et al. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(5):1527–33.
Chtara M, Chamari K, Chaouachi M, et al. Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(8):555–60.
Doma K, Deakin GB. The effects of strength training and endurance training order on running-economy and -performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38(6):651–6.
Vuorimaa T, Virlander R, Kurkilahti P, et al. Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96(3):282–91.
Boullosa DA, Tuimil JL, Alegre LM, et al. Concurrent fatigue and potentiation in endurance athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(1):82–93.
Coffey VG, Zhong Z, Shield A, et al. Early signaling responses to divergent exercise stimuli in skeletal muscle from well-trained humans. FASEB J. 2006;20(1):190–2.
Coffey VG, Pilegaard H, Garnham AP, et al. Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(4):1187–97.
Wilkinson SB, Phillips SM, Atherton PJ, et al. Differential effects of resistance and endurance exercise in the fed state on signalling molecule phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human muscle. J Physiol. 2008;586(Pt 15):3701–17.
Lundberg TR, Fernandez-Gonzalo R, Gustafsson T, et al. Aerobic exercise alters skeletal muscle molecular responses to resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(9):1680–8.
Chakravarthy MV, Booth FW. Eating, exercise, and “thrifty” genotypes: connecting the dots toward an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(1):3–10.
Pilegaard H, Saltin B, Neufer PD. Effect of short-term fasting and refeeding on transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2003;52(3):657–62.
Hansen AK, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptation: training twice every second day vs. training once daily. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(1):93–9.
Yeo WK, Paton CD, Garnham AP, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105(5):1462–70.
Baar K, McGee S. Optimizing training adaptations by manipulating glycogen. Eur J Sport Sci. 2008;8(2):97–106.
Hawley JA, Tipton KD, Millard-Stafford ML. Promoting training adaptations through nutritional interventions. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):709–21.
Burke LM. Fueling strategies to optimize performance: training high or training low? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(Suppl. 2):48–58.
Ehlert T, Simon P, Moser DA. Epigenetics in sports. Sports Med. 2013;43(2):93–110.