Skip to main content
Log in

Harnessing and Understanding Feedback Technology in Applied Settings

  • Current Opinion
  • Published:
Sports Medicine Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Research on the influence of augmented feedback effects on both skill learning and performance has been examined from two differing positions, generally reflective of two core movement science disciplines: motor learning and biomechanics. The motor learning approach has been to examine the content and timing of feedback under tightly controlled laboratory settings, with a focus on simple tasks and the influence of movement outcome feedback. At the other end of the spectrum are biomechanical approaches, which have been primarily devoted to demonstrating the capacity of measurement technology to quantify and report on movement pattern effectiveness. This review highlights the gap left by these two approaches and argues that advancement of our understanding of feedback application in practical settings requires a shift towards a multi-disciplinary focus. A particular focus of the review is on how researchers and practitioners need to harness our understanding and subsequent application of the emergent feedback technologies most prevalent in elite sport settings and clinical sports medicine. We highlight important considerations for future applied multidisciplinary research driven by relevant theory and methodological design to more comprehensively capture how feedback systems can be used to facilitate the development of skilled performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Liebermann DG, Katz L, Hughes MD, et al. Advances in the application of information technology to sport performance. J Sports Sci. 2002;20(10):755–69.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Abernethy B, Masters RSW, Zachry T. Using biomechanical feedback to enhance skill learning and performance. In: Hong Y, Bartlett R, editors. Routledge handbook of biomechanics and human movement science. New York: Routledge; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bartlett RM. Current issues in the mechanics of athletic activities: a position paper. J Biomech. 1997;30(5):477–86.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Magill RA. Motor learning and control: concepts and applications. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Schmidt RA, Lee TD. Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis. 4th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA. Motor control and performance: a problem-based learning approach. 2nd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 10 years of research. E J Bewegung und Training. 2007;1:4–14.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Wulf G, Shea CH. Understanding the role of augmented feedback: the good, the bad and the ugly. In: Hodges NJ, Williams MA, editors. Skill acquisition in sport: research, theory and practice. London: Routledge; 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Baudry L, Leroy D, Thouvarecq R, et al. Auditory concurrent feedback benefits on the circle performed in gymnastics. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(2):149–56.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Wulf G, Shea C. Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychon Bull Rev. 2002;9(2):185–211.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Lees A. Biomechanical assessment of individual sports for improved performance. Sport Med. 1999;28(5):299–305.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Hay JG. The biomechanics of sports technique. 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Sanderson LK, McClements JD, Gander BE. Development of apparatus to provide immediate accurate feedback to sprinters in normal training environment. New Stud Athlet. 1991;6:33–41.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Smith RM, Loschner C. Biomechanics feedback for rowing. J Sports Sci. 2002;20(10):783–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. James DA. The application of inertial sensors in elite sports monitoring. In: Moritz EF, Haake S, editors. The engineering of sport. New York: Springer; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Anderson R. Augmented feedback—the triptych conundrum. Proc ISBS. 2010;28:95–6.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Sanderson DJ. An application of a computer based real-time data acquisition and feedback system. Int J Sport Biomech. 1986;2(3):210–4.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Anderson R, Harrison A, Lyons GM. Accelerometry based feedback—can it improve movement consistency and performance in rowing? Sports Biomech. 2005;4(2):179–95.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Konttinen NK, Wiitasalo J, Mets T. The effects of augmented auditory feedback on psychomotor skill learning in precision shooting. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2004;26(2):306–16.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Mononen K, Viitasalo JT, Konttinen N, et al. The effects of augmented kinematic feedback on motor skill learning in rifle shooting. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(10):867–76.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Eriksson M, Halvorsen KA, Gullstrand L. Immediate effect of visual and auditory feedback to control the running mechanics of well-trained athletes. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(3):253–62.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Cronin JB, Bressel E, Finn L. Augmented feedback reduces ground reaction forces in the landing phase of the volleyball spike jump. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17(2):148–59.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Rucci JA, Tomporowski PD. Three types of kinematic feedback and the execution of the hang power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(3):771–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Argus CK, Gill ND, Keogh JWL, et al. Acute effects of verbal feedback on upper-body performance in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3282–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Rice I, Gagnon D, Gallagher J, et al. Hand rim wheelchair propulsion training using biomechanical real-time visual feedback based on motor learning theory principles. J Spinal Cord Med. 2010;33(1):33–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Hunt MA, Simic M, Hinman RS, et al. Feasibility of a gait retraining strategy for reducing knee joint loading: increased trunk lean guided by real-time biofeedback. J Biomech. 2011;44(5):943–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Liebermann DG, Buchman AS, Franks IM. Enhancement of motor rehabilitation through the use of information technologies. Clin Biomech. 2006;21(1):8–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Salmoni AW, Schmidt RA, Walter CB. Knowledge of results and motor learning: a review and critical reappraisal. Psych Bull. 1984;95(3):355–86.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Broker JP, Gregor RJ, Schmidt RA. Extrinsic feedback and the learning of kinetic patterns in cycling. J Appl Biomech. 1993;9(2):111–23.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Helmer RJN, Farrow D, Lucas SR, et al. Can interactive textiles influence a novice’s throwing technique? Proc Eng. 2010;2(2):2985–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Newell KM. Coordination, control and skill. In: David Goodman RBW, Ian MF, editors. Advances in psychology. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Handford C, Davids K, Bennett S, et al. Skill acquisition in sport: some applications of an evolving practice ecology. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(6):621–40.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Magill R. The influence of augmented feedback on skill learning depends on characteristics of the skill and the learner. Quest. 1994;46(3):314–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Magill RA, Anderson DI. The roles and uses of augmented feedback in motor skill acquisition. In: Hodges NJ, Williams AM, editors. Skill acquisition in sport: research, theory and practice. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: a framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. J Motor Behav. 2004;36(2):212–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Smith PJK, Taylor SJ, Withers K. Applying bandwidth feedback scheduling to golf putting. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1997;68:215–21.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Ishikura T. Reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results without visual feedback in learning a golf-putting task. Percept Motor Skill. 2008;106(1):225–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Debaere F, Wenderoth N, Sunaert S, et al. Internal vs external generation of movements: differential neural pathways involved in bimanual coordination performed in the presence or absence of augmented visual feedback. Neuroimage. 2003;19(3):764–76.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Herman DC, Oñate JA, Weinhold PS, et al. The effects of feedback with and without strength training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(7):1301–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hume PA, Keogh J, Reid D. The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sport Med. 2005;35(5):429–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Farrow D, Abernethy B, Jackson RC. Probing expert anticipation with the temporal occlusion paradigm: experimental investigations of some methodological issues. Motor Control. 2005;9:330–49.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Huys R, Smeeton NJ, Hodges NJ, et al. On the dynamic information underlying visual anticipation skill. Percept Psychophys. 2008;70(7):1217–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Elliott BC, Knudson D. Analysis of sport performance. In: Ackland TR, Elliott BC, Bloomfield J, editors. Applied anatomy and biomechanics in sport. USA: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Wilson BD. Development in video technology for coaching. Sports Tech. 2008;1(1):34–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Buttfield A, Ball K, Macmahon C. The use of motor learning in biomechanics: a call for more collaboration. Int J Sport Psychol. 2009;40(4):603–15.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and Australian Institute of Sport funding was used in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elissa Phillips.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Phillips, E., Farrow, D., Ball, K. et al. Harnessing and Understanding Feedback Technology in Applied Settings. Sports Med 43, 919–925 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0072-7

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0072-7

Keywords

Navigation