Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 7, pp 613–625 | Cite as

Methods of Prescribing Relative Exercise Intensity: Physiological and Practical Considerations

  • Theresa Mann
  • Robert Patrick Lamberts
  • Michael Ian Lambert
Review Article

Abstract

Exercise prescribed according to relative intensity is a routine feature in the exercise science literature and is intended to produce an approximately equivalent exercise stress in individuals with different absolute exercise capacities. The traditional approach has been to prescribe exercise intensity as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax) and these methods remain common in the literature. However, exercise intensity prescribed at a %VO2max or %HRmax does not necessarily place individuals at an equivalent intensity above resting levels. Furthermore, some individuals may be above and others below metabolic thresholds such as the aerobic threshold (AerT) or anaerobic threshold (AnT) at the same %VO2max or %HRmax. For these reasons, some authors have recommended that exercise intensity be prescribed relative to oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R), heart rate reserve (HRR), the AerT, or the AnT rather than relative to VO2max or HRmax. The aim of this review was to compare the physiological and practical implications of using each of these methods of relative exercise intensity prescription for research trials or training sessions. It is well established that an exercise bout at a fixed %VO2max or %HRmax may produce interindividual variation in blood lactate accumulation and a similar effect has been shown when relating exercise intensity to VO2R or HRR. Although individual variation in other markers of metabolic stress have seldom been reported, it is assumed that these responses would be similarly heterogeneous at a %VO2max, %HRmax, %VO2R, or %HRR of moderate-to-high intensity. In contrast, exercise prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would be expected to produce less individual variation in metabolic responses and less individual variation in time to exhaustion at a constant exercise intensity. Furthermore, it would be expected that training prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would provide a more homogenous training stimulus than training prescribed as a %VO2max. However, many of these theoretical advantages of threshold-related exercise prescription have yet to be directly demonstrated. On a practical level, the use of threshold-related exercise prescription has distinct disadvantages compared to the use of %VO2max or %HRmax. Thresholds determined from single incremental tests cannot be assumed to be accurate in all individuals without verification trials. Verification trials would involve two or three additional laboratory visits and would add considerably to the testing burden on both the participant and researcher. Threshold determination and verification would also involve blood lactate sampling, which is aversive to some participants and has a number of intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation. Threshold measurements also tend to show higher day-to-day variation than VO2max or HRmax. In summary, each method of prescribing relative exercise intensity has both advantages and disadvantages when both theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account. It follows that the most appropriate method of relative exercise intensity prescription may vary with factors such as exercise intensity, number of participants, and participant characteristics. Considering a method’s limitations as well as advantages and increased reporting of individual exercise responses will facilitate accurate interpretation of findings and help to identify areas for further study.

Keywords

Exercise Intensity Blood Lactate Exercise Bout Blood Lactate Concentration Exercise Prescription 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported financially by the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD), the Ernst and Ethel Eriksen Trust, and the University of Cape Town. The authors declare that there was no conflict of interest in the preparation of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Hills AP, Byrn NM, Ramage AJ. Submaximal markers of exercise intensity. J Sport Sci. 1998;16:S71–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carvalho VO, Mezzani A. Aerobic exercise training intensity in patients with chronic heart failure: principles of assessment and prescription. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev and Rehabil. 2011;18(1):5–14.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sedlock DA, Lee M-G, Flynn MG, et al. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20(4):336–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Killgore GL, Coste SC, O’ Meara SE, et al. A comparison of the physiological exercise intensity differences between shod and barefoot submaximal deep-water running at the same cadence. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3302–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferguson-Stegall L, McCleave E, Ding Z, et al. (2011) Aerobic exercise training adaptations are increased by postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation. J Nutr Metab. (epub 2011 June 9).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Proeyen K, Szlufcik K, Nielens H, et al. Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state. J Appl Physiol. 2011;110(1):236–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McPhee JS, Williams AG, Perez-Schindler J, et al. Variability in the magnitude of response of metabolic enzymes reveals patterns of co-ordinated expression following endurance training in women. Exp Physiol. 2011;96(7):699–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nordsborg NB, Lundby C, Leick L, et al. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1477–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katayama K, Goto K, Ishida K, et al. Substrate utilization during exercise and recovery at moderate altitude. Metabolism. 2010;59(7):959–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donges CE, Duffield R, Drinkwater EJ. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(2):304–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Swain DP, Abernathy KS, Smith CS, et al. Target heart rates for the development of cardiorespiratory fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26(1):112–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Swain DP, Leutholtz BC. Heart rate reserve is equivalent to %VO2 reserve, not to %VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(3):410–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Swain DP, Leutholtz BC, King ME, et al. Relationship between % heart rate reserve and %VO2 reserve in treadmill exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(2):318–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Katch V, Weltman A, Sady S, et al. Validity of the relative percent concept for equating training intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1978;39(4):219–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dwyer J, Bybee R. Heart rate indices of the anaerobic threshold. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(1):72–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meyer T, Gabriel HH, Kindermann W. Is determination of exercise intensities as percentages of VO2max or HRmax adequate? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(9):1342–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scharhag-Rosenberger F, Meyer T, Gässler N, et al. Exercise at given percentages of VO2max: heterogeneous metabolic responses between individuals. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(1):74–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vollaard NBJ, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Fredriksson K, et al. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(5):1479–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lounana J, Campion F, Noakes TD, et al. Relationship between %HRmax, %HR reserve, %VO2max, and %VO2 reserve in elite cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(2):350–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pollock ML, Gaesser GA, Butcher JD, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(6):975–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cunha FA, Midgley AW, Monteiro WD, et al. The relationship between oxygen uptake reserve and heart rate reserve is affected by intensity and duration during aerobic exercise at constant work rate. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(6):839–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Da Cunha FA, Farinatti PDTV, Midgley AW. Methodological and practical application issues in exercise prescription using the heart rate reserve and oxygen uptake reserve methods. J Sci Med Sport; 2011; 14(1):46–57.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cunha FA, Midgley AW, Monteiro WD, et al. Influence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing protocol and resting VO(2) assessment on %HR(max), %HRR, %VO(2max) and %VO(2)R relationships. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(5):319–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gaskill SE, Bouchard C, Rankinen T, et al. %Heart rate reserve is better related to %VO2max than to %VO2 reserve: the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2004;36(5):S3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aellen R, Hollmann W, Boutellier U. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on plasma lipoproteins. Int J Sports Med. 1993;14(7):396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jenkins DG, Quigley BM. Endurance training enhances critical power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(11):1283–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Billat VL, Sirvent P, Lepretre P-M, et al. Training effect on performance, substrate balance and blood lactate concentration at maximal lactate steady state in master endurance-runners. Pflügers Archiv. 2004;447(6):875–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vanhatalo A, Doust JH, Burnley M. A 3-min all-out cycling test is sensitive to a change in critical power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(9):1693–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Casaburi R, Storer TW, Sullivan CS, et al. Evaluation of blood lactate elevation as an intensity criterion for exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(6):852–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoshida T, Suda Y, Takeuchi N. Endurance training regimen based upon arterial blood lactate: effects on anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1982;49(2):223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morton JP, MacLaren DPM, Cable NT, et al. Time course and differential responses of the major heat shock protein families in human skeletal muscle following acute nondamaging treadmill exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101(1):176–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Myers J, Ashley E. Dangerous curves. A perspective on exercise, lactate, and the anaerobic threshold. Chest. 1997;111(3):787–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hopker JG, Jobson SA, Pandit JJ. Controversies in the physiological basis of the “anaerobic threshold” and their implications for clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Anaesthesia. 2011;66(2):111–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Whipp BJ, Ward SA. The physiological basis of the “anaerobic threshold” and implications for clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Anaesthesia. 2011; 66(11):1048–1049 (author reply 1049–50).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hopper MK, et al. Determinants of endurance in well-trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol. 1988;64(6):2622–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weltman A, Weltman J, Rutt R, et al. Percentages of maximal heart rate, heart rate reserve, and VO2peak for determining endurance training intensity in sedentary women. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(3):212–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weltman A, Snead D, Seip R, et al. Percentages of maximal heart rate, heart rate reserve and VO2max for determining endurance training intensity in male runners. Int J Sports Med. 1990;11(3):218–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Skinner JS, Gaskill SE, Rankinen T, et al. Evaluation of ACSM guidelines on prescribing exercise intensity for “quite unfit”: the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(5):S3.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Azevedo LF, Perlingeiro PS, Brum PC, et al. Exercise intensity optimization for men with high cardiorespiratory fitness. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(6):555–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schnabel A, Kindermann W, Schmitt WM, et al. Hormonal and metabolic consequences of prolonged running at the individual anaerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med. 1982;3(3):163–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McLellan TM, Cheung KS. A comparative evaluation of the individual anaerobic threshold and the critical power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(5):543–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Van Schuylenbergh R, Vanden Eynde B, Hespel P. Correlations between lactate and ventilatory thresholds and the maximal lactate steady state in elite cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(6):403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Skinner JS, McLellan TH. The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1980;51(1):234–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones AM, Poole DC. Oxygen uptake dynamics: from muscle to mouth—an introduction to the symposium. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(9):1542–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mazzeo RS, Marshall P. Influence of plasma catecholamines on the lactate threshold during graded exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1989;67(4):1319–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Urhausen A, Weiler B, Coen B, et al. Plasma catecholamines during endurance exercise of different intensities as related to the individual anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;69(1):16–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pringle JSM, Jones AM. Maximal lactate steady state, critical power and EMG during cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;88(3):214–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jones AM, Wilkerson DP, DiMenna F, et al. Muscle metabolic responses to exercise above and below the “critical power” assessed using 31P-MRS. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294(2):R585–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chwalbinska-Moneta J, Robergs RA, Costill DL, et al. Threshold for muscle lactate accumulation during progressive exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1989;66(6):2710–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McLellan TM, Jacobs I. Reliability, reproducibility and validity of the individual anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1993;67(2):125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Poole DC, Ward SA, Gardner GW, et al. Metabolic and respiratory profile of the upper limit for prolonged exercise in man. Ergonomics. 1988;31(9):1265–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dekerle J, Baron B, Dupont L, et al. Maximal lactate steady state, respiratory compensation threshold and critical power. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(3–4):281–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Allen DG, Lamb GD, Westerblad H. Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev. 2008;88(1):287–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med. 2005;35(10):865–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sjödin B, Jacobs I. Onset of blood lactate accumulation and marathon running performance. Int J Sports Med. 1981;2(1):23–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Komi PV, Ito A, Sjödin B, et al. Muscle metabolism, lactate breaking point, and biomechanical features of endurance running. Int J Sports Med. 1981;2(3):148–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ivy JL, Withers RT, Van Handel PJ, et al. Muscle respiratory capacity and fiber type as determinants of the lactate threshold. J Appl Physiol. 1980;48(3):523–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sjödin B, Jacobs I, Karlsson J. Onset of blood lactate accumulation and enzyme activities in m. vastus lateralis in man. Int J Sports Med. 1981;2(3):166–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rusko H, Rahkila P, Karvinen E. Anaerobic threshold, skeletal muscle enzymes and fiber composition in young female cross-country skiers. Acta Physiol Scand. 1980;108(3):263–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, et al. Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports. 1979;11(4):338–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bishop D, Jenkins DG, Mackinnon LT. The relationship between plasma lactate parameters, W peak and 1-h cycling performance in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(8):1270–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stratton E, O’Brien B, Harvey J, et al. Treadmill velocity best predicts 5000-m run performance. Int J Sports Med. 2008;30(1):40–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hildebrandt AL, Pilegaard H, Neufer PD. Differential transcriptional activation of select metabolic genes in response to variations in exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285(5):E1021–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen Z-P, Stephens TJ, Murthy S, et al. Effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMPK signaling in humans. Diabetes. 2003;52(9):2205–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Baar K. The signaling underlying FITness. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(3):411–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Coffey VG, Hawley JA. The molecular bases of training adaptation. Sports Med. 2007;37(9):737–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Flück M. Functional, structural and molecular plasticity of mammalian skeletal muscle in response to exercise stimuli. J Exp Biol. 2006;209(Pt 12):2239–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McLellan TM, Skinner JS. The use of the aerobic threshold as a basis for training. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1981;6(4):197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bouchard C, Rankinen T. Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6 Suppl):S446–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sisson SB, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, et al. Volume of exercise and fitness nonresponse in sedentary, postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):539–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kohrt WM, Malley MT, Coggan AR, et al. Effects of gender, age, and fitness level on response of VO2max to training in 60–71 year olds. J Appl Physiol. 1991;71(5):2004–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hautala AJ, Kiviniemi AM, Mäkikallio TH, et al. Individual differences in the responses to endurance and resistance training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96(5):535–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Prud’homme D, Bouchard C, Leblanc C, et al. Sensitivity of maximal aerobic power to training is genotype-dependent. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1984;16(5):489–493.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Scharhag-Rosenberger F, Walitzek S, Kindermann W, et al. Differences in adaptations to 1 year of aerobic endurance training: individual patterns of nonresponse. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;22(1):113–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Karavirta L, Häkkinen K, Kauhanen A, et al. Individual responses to combined endurance and strength training in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;31:484–90.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bouchard C. Genomic predictors of trainability. Exp Physiol. 2012;97(3):347–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bouchard C, An P, Rice TK, et al. Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87(3):1003–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA, Rice TK, et al. Genomic predictors of the maximal O2 uptake response to standardized exercise training programs. J Appl Physiol. 2011;110(5):1160–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rice TK, An P, Gagnon J, et al. Heritability of HR and BP response to exercise training in the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(6):972–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rico-Sanz J, Rankinen T, Joanisse DR, et al. Familial resemblance for muscle phenotypes in the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1360–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Karoly HC, Stevens CJ, Magnan RE, et al. Genetic influences on physiological and subjective responses to an aerobic exercise session among sedentary adults. J Cancer Epidemiol. (epub 2012 Jul 29).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bentley DJ, Newell J, Bishop D. Incremental exercise test design and analysis: implications for performance diagnostics in endurance athletes. Sports Med. 2007;37(7):575–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Poole DC, Wilkerson DP, Jones AM. Validity of criteria for establishing maximal O2 uptake during ramp exercise tests. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102(4):403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kirkeberg JM, Dalleck LC, Kamphoff CS, et al. Validity of 3 protocols for verifying VO2 max. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(4):266–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Day JR, Rossiter HB, Coats EM, et al. The maximally attainable VO2 during exercise in humans: the peak vs. maximum issue. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(5):1901–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Midgley AW, Carroll S. Emergence of the verification phase procedure for confirming “true” VO2max. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(3):313–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pettitt RW, Clark IE, Ebner SM, et al. Gas exchange threshold and VO2max testing for athletes: an update. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):549–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Midgley AW, Carroll S, Marchant D, et al. Evaluation of true maximal oxygen uptake based on a novel set of standardized criteria. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(2):115–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Scharhag-Rosenberger F, Carlsohn A, Cassel M, et al. How to test maximal oxygen uptake: a study on timing and testing procedure of a supramaximal verification test. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(1):153–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Astorino TA, White AC. Assessment of anaerobic power to verify VO2max attainment. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2010;30(4):294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dalleck LC, Astorino TA, Erickson RM, et al. Suitability of verification testing to confirm attainment of VO2max in middle-aged and older adults. Res Sport Med. 2012;20(2):118–28.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Robergs RA, Landwehr R. The surprising history of the “HRmax = 220 – age” equation. J Exerc Physiol. 2002;5(2):1–10.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fox SM, Naughton JP, Haskell WL. Physical activity and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Ann Clin Res. 1971;3(6):404–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Swain DP, Franklin BA. VO(2) reserve and the minimal intensity for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):152–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brawner CA, Keteyian SJ, Ehrman JK. The relationship of heart rate reserve to VO2 reserve in patients with heart disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(3):418–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Compher C, Frankenfield D, Keim N, et al. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(6):881–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rusko H, Luhtanen P, Rahkila P, et al. Muscle metabolism, blood lactate and oxygen uptake in steady state exercise at aerobic and anaerobic thresholds. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1986;55(2):181–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Aunola S, Rusko H. Does anaerobic threshold correlate with maximal lactate steady-state? J Sports Sci. 1992;10(4):309–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Beneke R. Methodological aspects of maximal lactate steady state—implications for performance testing. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(1):95–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Smith CGM. The relationship between critical velocity, maximal lactate steady-state velocity and lactate turnpoint velocity in runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85:19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Beneke R, Von Duvillard SP. Determination of maximal lactate steady state response in selected sports events. Med Sci Sports. 1996;28(2):241–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    McLellan TM, Cheung KS, Jacobs I. Incremental test protocol, recovery mode and the individual anaerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med. 1991;12(2):190–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Beneke R. Anaerobic threshold, individual anaerobic threshold, and maximal lactate steady state in rowing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(6):863–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cheng B, Kuipers H, Snyder AC, et al. A new approach for the determination of ventilatory and lactate thresholds. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13(7):518–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhou S, Weston SB. Reliability of using the D-max method to define physiological responses to incremental exercise testing. Physiol Meas. 1997;18(2):145–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hopkins WG. Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med. 2000;30(1):1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hopkins WG, Schabort EJ, Hawley JA. Reliability of power in physical performance tests. Sports Med. 2001;31(3):211–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jensen K, Johansen L. Reproducibility and validity of physiological parameters measured in cyclists riding on racing bikes placed on a stationary magnetic brake. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1998;8(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bingisser R, Kaplan V, Scherer T, et al. Effect of training on repeatability of cardiopulmonary exercise performance in normal men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(11):1499–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Aunola S, Rusko H. Reproducibility of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds in 20–50 year old men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1984;53(3):260–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Weston SB, Gabbett TJ. Reproducibility of ventilation of thresholds in trained cyclists during ramp cycle exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(3):357–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lourenço TF, Martins LEB, Tessutti LS, et al. Reproducibility of an incremental treadmill VO2max test with gas exchange analysis for runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(7):1994–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wisén AGM, Wohlfart B. A refined technique for determining the respiratory gas exchange responses to anaerobic metabolism during progressive exercise—repeatability in a group of healthy men. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2004;24(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Weltman A, Snead D, Stein P, et al. Reliability and validity of a continuous incremental treadmill protocol for the determination of lactate threshold, fixed blood lactate concentrations, and VO2max. Int J Sports Med. 1990;11(1):26–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lamberts RP, Swart J, Richard W, et al. Measurement error associated with performance testing in well-trained cyclists: application to the precision of monitoring changes in training status. Int Sports Med J. 2009;10(1):33–44.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Amann M, Subudhi AW, Walker J, et al. An evaluation of the predictive validity and reliability of ventilatory threshold. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(10):1716–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yeh MP, Gardner RM, Adams TD, et al. “Anaerobic threshold”: problems of determination and validation. J Appl Physiol. 1983;55(4):1178–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gladden LB, Yates JW, Stremel RW, et al. Gas exchange and lactate anaerobic thresholds: inter- and intraevaluator agreement. J Appl Physiol. 1985;58(6):2082–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Coen B, Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Individual anaerobic threshold: methodological aspects of its assessment in running. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(1):8–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dickhuth HH, Yin L, Niess A, et al. Ventilatory, lactate-derived and catecholamine thresholds during incremental treadmill running: relationship and reproducibility. Int J Sports Med. 1999;20(2):122–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Podolin DA, Munger PA, Mazzeo RS. Plasma catecholamine and lactate response during graded exercise with varied glycogen conditions. J Appl Physiol. 1991;71(4):1427–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Parkin JM, Carey MF, Zhao S, et al. Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(3):902–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Flore P, Therminarias A, Oddou-Chirpaz MF, et al. Influence of moderate cold exposure on blood lactate during incremental exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;64(3):213–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dassonville J, Beillot J, Lessard Y, et al. Blood lactate concentrations during exercise: effect of sampling site and exercise mode. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1998;38(1):39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    el-Sayed MS, George KP, Dyson K. The influence of blood sampling site on lactate concentration during submaximal exercise at 4 mmol/l lactate level. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1993;67(6):518–22.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Robergs RA, Chwalbinska-Moneta J, Mitchell JB, et al. Blood lactate threshold differences between arterialized and venous blood. Int J Sports Med. 1990;11(6):446–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bishop D. Evaluation of the Accusport lactate analyser. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(7):525–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jacobs I. Blood lactate. Implications for training and sports performance. Sports Med. 1986;3(1):10–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Swart J, Jennings C. Use of blood lactate concentration as a marker of training. SA J Sports Med. 2004;16(3):1–5.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Beneke R, Leithäuser RM, Ochentei O. Blood lactate diagnostics in exercise testing and training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6:8–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stanforth PR, Gagnon J, Rice T, et al. Reproducibility of resting blood pressure and heart rate measurements. The HERITAGE Family Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(5):271–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theresa Mann
    • 1
  • Robert Patrick Lamberts
    • 1
  • Michael Ian Lambert
    • 1
  1. 1.UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape TownNewlandsSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations