Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 313–338 | Cite as

High-Intensity Interval Training, Solutions to the Programming Puzzle

Part I: Cardiopulmonary Emphasis
  • Martin BuchheitEmail author
  • Paul B. Laursen
Review Article


High-intensity interval training (HIT), in a variety of forms, is today one of the most effective means of improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, the physical performance of athletes. HIT involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. For team and racquet sport players, the inclusion of sprints and all-out efforts into HIT programmes has also been shown to be an effective practice. It is believed that an optimal stimulus to elicit both maximal cardiovascular and peripheral adaptations is one where athletes spend at least several minutes per session in their ‘red zone,’ which generally means reaching at least 90 % of their maximal oxygen uptake (\( \dot{V} \)O2max). While use of HIT is not the only approach to improve physiological parameters and performance, there has been a growth in interest by the sport science community for characterizing training protocols that allow athletes to maintain long periods of time above 90 % of \( \dot{V} \)O2max (T@\( \dot{V} \)O2max). In addition to T@\( \dot{V} \)O2max, other physiological variables should also be considered to fully characterize the training stimulus when programming HIT, including cardiovascular work, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and acute neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain. Prescription for HIT consists of the manipulation of up to nine variables, which include the work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, as well as the between-series recovery duration and intensity. The manipulation of any of these variables can affect the acute physiological responses to HIT. This article is Part I of a subsequent II-part review and will discuss the different aspects of HIT programming, from work/relief interval manipulation to the selection of exercise mode, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to T@\( \dot{V} \)O2max and cardiovascular responses. Additional programming and periodization considerations will also be discussed with respect to other variables such as anaerobic glycolytic system contribution (as inferred from blood lactate accumulation), neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain (Part II).


Passive Recovery Maximal Lactate Steady State Exercise Onset Uphill Running Acute Physiological Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Laursen PB. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(Suppl 2):1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seiler S, Tønnessen E. Intervals, thresholds, and long slow distance: the role of intensity and duration in endurance training. Sportscience. 2009;13:32–53.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Billat LV. Interval training for performance: a scientific and empirical practice: special recommendations for middle- and long-distance running. Part I: aerobic interval training. Sports Med. 2001;1:13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Billat LV. Interval training for performance: a scientific and empirical practice: special recommendations for middle- and long-distance running. Part II: anaerobic interval training. Sports Med. 2001;31:75–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laursen PB, Jenkins DG. The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Sports Med. 2002;32:53–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laursen PB. Interval training for endurance. In: Mujika I, editor. Endurance training: science and practice (pp. 41–50). Vitoria-Gasteiz: Iñigo Mujika; 2012. ISBN 978-84-939970-0-7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability—Part II: recommendations for training. Sports Med. 2011;41:741–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al. Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol. 2006;575:901–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iaia FM, Bangsbo J. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(Suppl. 2):11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Astrand I, Astrand PO, Christensen EH, et al. Intermittent muscular work. Acta Physiol Scand. 1960;48:448–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Astrand I, Astrand PO, Christensen EH, et al. Myohemoglobin as an oxygen-store in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1960;48:454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Christensen EH, Hedman R, Saltin B. Intermittent and continuous running. (A further contribution to the physiology of intermittent work.). Acta Physiol Scand. 1960;50:269–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balsom PD, Seger JY, Sjodin B, et al. Maximal-intensity intermittent exercise: effect of recovery duration. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13:528–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Midgley AW, McNaughton LR. Time at or near VO2max during continuous and intermittent running: a review with special reference to considerations for the optimisation of training protocols to elicit the longest time at or near VO2max. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Wilkinson M. Is there an optimal training intensity for enhancing the maximal oxygen uptake of distance runners? Empirical research findings, current opinions, physiological rationale and practical recommendations. Sports Med. 2006;36:117–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Altenburg TM, Degens H, van Mechelen W, et al. Recruitment of single muscle fibers during submaximal cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2007;103:1752–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gollnick PD, Piehl K, Saltin B. Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates. J Physiol. 1974;241:45–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Jones AM. Training to enhance the physiological determinants of long-distance running performance: can valid recommendations be given to runners and coaches based on current scientific knowledge? Sports Med. 2007;37:857–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vollaard NB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Fredriksson K, et al. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:1479–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bouchard C, Rankinen T. Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:S446–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buchheit M, Kuitunen S, Voss SC, et al. Physiological strain associated with high-intensity hypoxic intervals in highly trained young runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:94–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vuorimaa T, Vasankari T, Rusko H. Comparison of physiological strain and muscular performance of athletes during two intermittent running exercises at the velocity associated with VO2max. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21:96–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Billat LV, Slawinksi J, Bocquet V, et al. Very short (15 s–15 s) interval-training around the critical velocity allows middle-aged runners to maintain VO2 max for 14 minutes. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:201–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faisal A, Beavers KR, Robertson AD, et al. Prior moderate and heavy exercise accelerate oxygen uptake and cardiac output kinetics in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:1553–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lepretre PM, Lopes P, Koralsztein JP, et al. Fatigue responses in exercise under control of VO2. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mortensen SP, Damsgaard R, Dawson EA, et al. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2008;586:2621–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Richard R, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Dufour S, et al. Cardiac output and oxygen release during very high-intensity exercise performed until exhaustion. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;93:9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Christmass MA, Dawson B, Arthur PG. Effect of work and recovery duration on skeletal muscle oxygenation and fuel use during sustained intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;80:436–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Christmass MA, Dawson B, Passeretto P, et al. A comparison of skeletal muscle oxygenation and fuel use in sustained continuous and intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1999;80:423–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S. Parasympathetic reactivation after repeated sprint exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H133–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    James DV, Barnes AJ, Lopes P, et al. Heart rate variability: response following a single bout of interval training. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23:247–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mourot L, Bouhaddi M, Tordi N, et al. Short- and long-term effects of a single bout of exercise on heart rate variability: comparison between constant and interval training exercises. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 92:508–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Al Haddad H, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S, et al. Nocturnal heart rate variability following supramaximal intermittent exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4:435–47.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoff J, Helgerud J. Endurance and strength training for soccer players: physiological considerations. Sports Med. 2004;3:165–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buchheit M. The 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test: a new intermittent running field test for intermittent sport players—part 1. Approches du Handball. 2005;87:27–34.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buchheit M, Al Haddad H, Chivot A, et al. Effect of in- versus out-of-water recovery on repeated swimming sprint performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010;108:321–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guiraud T, Nigam A, Gremeaux V, et al. High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. Sports Med. 2012;42:587–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Metcalfe RS, Babraj JA, Fawkner SG, et al. Towards the minimal amount of exercise for improving metabolic health: beneficial effects of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:2767–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hood MS, Little JP, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Low-volume interval training improves muscle oxidative capacity in sedentary adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1849–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Trilk JL, Singhal A, Bigelman KA, et al. Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:1591–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, Inc.; 1988. p. 599.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, et al. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Kuhnle J, et al. Game-based training in young elite handball players. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:251–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, et al. Physiological responses to ball-drills in regional level male basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29:1329–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fernandez-Fernandez J, Sanz-Rivas D, Sanchez-Muñoz C, et al. Physiological responses to on-court vs running interval training in competitive tennis players. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10:540–5.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Impellizzeri FM, Marcora SM, Castagna C, et al. Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:483–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sheppard JM, Borgeaud R. Skill based conditioning: a perspective from elite volleyball. NSCA hot topic series. 2009; December [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 12 Dec 2011].
  48. 48.
    Gabbett TJ. Skill-based conditioning games as an alternative to traditional conditioning for rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:309–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hill-Haas SV, Dawson B, Impellizzeri FM, et al. Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2011;41:199–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Buchheit M, Lepretre PM, Behaegel AL, et al. Cardiorespiratory responses during running and sport-specific exercises in handball players. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12:399–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Castagna C, Belardinelli R, Impellizzeri FM, et al. Cardiovascular responses during recreational 5-a-side indoor-soccer. J Sci Med Sport 2007;10:89–95.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Owen AL, Wong del P, Paul D, Dellal A. Effects of a periodized small-sided game training intervention on physical performance in elite professional soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:2748–54.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hill-Haas SV, Coutts AJ, Rowsell GJ, et al. Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:636–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dellal A, Lago-Penas C, Wong del P, et al. Effect of the number of ball contacts within bouts of 4 vs. 4 small-sided soccer games. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2011;6:322–33.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rampinini E, Impellizzeri F, Castagna C, et al. Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. J Sports Sci. 2007;6:659–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hill-Haas S, Coutts A, Rowsell G, et al. Variability of acute physiological responses and performance profiles of youth soccer players in small-sided games. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:487–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hill-Haas S, Rowsell G, Coutts A, et al. The reproducibility of physiological responses and performance profiles of youth soccer players in small-sided games. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3:393–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Daussin FN, Ponsot E, Dufour SP, et al. Improvement of Da-vO2 by cardiac output and oxygen extraction adaptation during intermittent versus continuous endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;101:377–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Helgerud J, Hoydal K, Wang E, et al. Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hoff J, Wisloff U, Engen LC, et al. Soccer specific aerobic endurance training. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36:218–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Whipp BJ, Higgenbotham MB, Cobb FC. Estimating exercise stroke volume from asymptotic oxygen pulse in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81:2674–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Saltin B, Blomqvist G, Mitchell JH, et al. Response to exercise after bed rest and after training. Circulation 1968;38:VII1–78.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mendez-Villanueva A, Buchheit M, Simpson BM, et al. Match play intensity distribution in youth soccer. Int J Sport Med 2013;34:101–10.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mendez-Villanueva A, Buchheit M, Simpson B, et al. Does on-field sprinting performance in young soccer players depend on how fast they can run or how fast they do run? J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2634–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Di Salvo V, Baron R, Gonzalez-Haro C, et al. Sprinting analysis of elite soccer players during European Champions League and UEFA Cup matches. J Sports Sci. 2010;28:1489–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Casamichana D, Castellano J, Castagna C. Comparing the physical demands of friendly matches and small-sided games in semiprofessional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:837–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Heart rate monitoring: applications and limitations. Sports Med. 2003;33:517–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Carroll S. Reproducibility of time at or near VO2max during intermittent treadmill running. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28:40–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Seiler S, Hetlelid KJ. The impact of rest duration on work intensity and RPE during interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1601–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cerretelli P, Di Prampero PE. Kinetics of respiratory gas exchange and cardiac output at the onset of exercise. Scand J Respir Dis 1971;Suppl.:35a–g.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Seiler S, Sjursen JE. Effect of work duration on physiological and rating scale of perceived exertion responses during self-paced interval training. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14:318–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dishman RK, Patton RW, Smith J, et al. Using perceived exertion to prescribe and monitor exercise training heart rate. Int J Sports Med. 1987;8:208–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Marcora S. Perception of effort during exercise is independent of afferent feedback from skeletal muscles, heart, and lungs. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:2060–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marcora SM. Role of feedback from Group III and IV muscle afferents in perception of effort, muscle pain, and discomfort. J Appl Physiol 2011;110:1499 (author reply 500).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Coutts AJ, Rampinini E, Marcora SM, et al. Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12:79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marcora SM, Staiano W, Manning V. Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:857–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ulmer HV. Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback. Experientia. 1996;52:416–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Garcin M, Fleury A, Mille-Hamard L, et al. Sex-related differences in ratings of perceived exertion and estimated time limit. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:675–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Garcin M, Danel M, Billat V. Perceptual responses in free vs. constant pace exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:453–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Celine CG, Monnier-Benoit P, Groslambert A, et al. The perceived exertion to regulate a training program in young women. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:220–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Groslambert A, Mahon AD. Perceived exertion: influence of age and cognitive development. Sports Med. 2006;36:911–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Garcin M, Coquart JB, Robin S, et al. Prediction of time to exhaustion in competitive cyclists from a perceptually based scale. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1393–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Garcin M, Mille-Hamard L, Billat V. Influence of aerobic fitness level on measured and estimated perceived exertion during exhausting runs. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:270–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cabanac ME. Exertion and pleasure from an evolutionary perspective. In: Acevedo EO, Ekkekakis P, editors. Psychobiology of physical activity. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2006. p. 79–89.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Volkov NI, Shirkovets EA, Borilkevich VE. Assessment of aerobic and anaerobic capacity of athletes in treadmill running tests. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1975;34:121–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Conley DL, Krahenbuhl GS. Running economy and distance running performance of highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12:357–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Leger LA, Boucher R. An indirect continuous running multistage field test: the Universite de Montreal track test. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1980;5:77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Daniels J, Scardina N, Hayes J, et al. Elite and subelite female middle- and long-distance runners. In: Landers DM, editor. Sport and elite performers: the 1984 Olympic scientific congress proceedings, vol. 3. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1984. p. 57–72.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Billat LV, Koralsztein JP. Significance of the velocity at VO2max and time to exhaustion at this velocity. Sports Med. 1996;22:90–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hill DW, Rowell AL. Running velocity at VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:114–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    di Prampero PE, Atchou G, Bruckner JC, et al. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1986;55:259–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lacour JR, Padilla-Magunacelaya S, Barthelemy JC, et al. The energetics of middle-distance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1990;60:38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Billat V, Renoux JC, Pinoteau J, et al. Reproducibility of running time to exhaustion at VO2max in subelite runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26:254–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Buchheit M. The 30–15 Intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:365–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dupont G, Akakpo K, Berthoin S. The effect of in-season, high-intensity interval training in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:584–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cazorla G, Benezzedine-Boussaidi L. Carré, F. Aptitude aérobie sur le terrain. Pourquoi et comment l’évaluer? Médecins du Sport 2005;73:13–23.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mendez-Villanueva A, Buchheit M, Kuitunen S, et al. Is the relationship between sprinting and maximal aerobic speeds in young soccer players affected by maturation? Ped Exerc Sci. 2010;4:497–510.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Buchheit M, Mendez-Villanueva A, Simpson BM, et al. Match running performance and fitness in youth soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31:818–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Noakes TD. Implications of exercise testing for prediction of athletic performance: a contemporary perspective. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988;20:319–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rampinini E, Bishop D, Marcora SM, et al. Validity of simple field tests as indicators of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28:228–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Berthon P, Fellmann N, Bedu M, et al. A 5-min running field test as a measurement of maximal aerobic velocity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1997;3:233–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hill DW, Rowell AL. Significance of time to exhaustion during exercise at the velocity associated with VO2max. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;72:383–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Midgley AW, McNaughton LR, Carroll S. Time at VO2max during intermittent treadmill running: test protocol dependent or methodological artefact? Int J Sports Med. 2007;28:934–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Harling SA, Tong RJ, Mickleborough TD. The oxygen uptake response running to exhaustion at peak treadmill speed. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:663–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pugh LG. The influence of wind resistance in running and walking and the mechanical efficiency of work against horizontal or vertical forces. J Physiol. 1971;213:255–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Saunders PU, Cox AJ, Hopkins WG, et al. Physiological measures tracking seasonal changes in peak running speed. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5:230–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dabonneville M, Berthon P, Vaslin P, et al. The 5 min running field test: test and retest reliability on trained men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;88:353–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Berthon P, Fellmann N. General review of maximal aerobic velocity measurement at laboratory. Proposition of a new simplified protocol for maximal aerobic velocity assessment. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2002;42:257–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bosquet L, Leger L, Legros P. Methods to determine aerobic endurance. Sports Med. 2002;32:675–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Blondel N, Berthoin S, Billat V, et al. Relationship between run times to exhaustion at 90, 100, 120, and 140% of vVO2max and velocity expressed relatively to critical velocity and maximal velocity. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bundle MW, Hoyt RW, Weyand PG. High-speed running performance: a new approach to assessment and prediction. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95:1955–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Weyand PG, Bundle MW. Energetics of high-speed running: integrating classical theory and contemporary observations. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R956–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Weyand PG, Lin JE, Bundle MW. Sprint performance-duration relationships are set by the fractional duration of external force application. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R758–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Buchheit M. Repeated-sprint performance in team sport players: associations with measures of aerobic fitness, metabolic control and locomotor function. Int J Sport Med. 2012;33:230–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mendez-Villanueva A, Hamer P, Bishop D. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:411–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Buchheit M. The 30–15 intermittent fitness test: 10 year review. Myorobie J 2010; 1 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 17 Feb 2013].
  117. 117.
    Dupont G, Blondel N, Lensel G, et al. Critical velocity and time spent at a high level of VO2 for short intermittent runs at supramaximal velocities. Can J Appl Physiol. 2002;27:103–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Buchheit M. 30–15 Intermittent fitness test and repeated sprint ability. Sci Sports. 2008;23:26–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Buchheit M, Al Haddad H, Leprêtre PM, et al. Cardiorespiratory and cardiac autonomic responses to 30–15 intermittent fitness test. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med. 2008;38:37–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dupont G, Defontaine M, Bosquet L, et al. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test versus the Universite de Montreal Track Test: relation with a high-intensity intermittent exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13:146–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Buchheit M. The 30–15 intermittent fitness test: reliability and implication for interval training of intermittent sport players [abstract no. 1231]. 10th European Congress of Sport Science. 2005 Jul 13–16; Belgrade.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Millet GP, et al. Predicting intermittent running performance: critical velocity versus endurance index. Int J Sports Med. 2007;29:307–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Dellal A, Varliette C, Owen A, et al. Small-sided games vs. interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:2712–20.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mosey T. High intensity interval training in youth soccer players: using fitness testing results practically. J Aust Strength Cond. 2009;17:49–51.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rakobowchuk M, Tanguay S, Burgomaster KA, et al. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R236–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Demarie S, Koralsztein JP, Billat V. Time limit and time at VO2max’ during a continuous and an intermittent run. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000;40:96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Millet GP, Candau R, Fattori P, et al. VO2 responses to different intermittent runs at velocity associated with VO2max. Can J Appl Physiol. 2003;28:410–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Dupont G, Blondel N, Berthoin S. Time spent at VO2max: a methodological issue. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24:291–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Billat VL, Blondel N, Berthoin S. Determination of the velocity associated with the longest time to exhaustion at maximal oxygen uptake. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;80:159–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hill DW, Williams CS, Burt SE. Responses to exercise at 92% and 100% of the velocity associated with VO2max. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18:325–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Billat V, Binsse V, Petit B, et al. High level runners are able to maintain a VO2 steady-state below VO2max in an all-out run over their critical velocity. Arch Physiol Biochem. 1998;106:38–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gerbino A, Ward SA, Whipp BJ. Effects of prior exercise on pulmonary gas-exchange kinetics during high-intensity exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80:99–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dorado C, Sanchis-Moysi J, Calbet JA. Effects of recovery mode on performance, O2 uptake, and O2 deficit during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 2004;29:227–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hill DW, Rowell AL. Responses to exercise at the velocity associated with VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hill DW, Stevens EC. VO2 response profiles in severe intensity exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005;45:239–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Laursen PB, Shing CM, Jenkins DG. Temporal aspects of the VO2 response at the power output associated with VO2peak in well trained cyclists: implications for interval training prescription. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004;75:423–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Billat LV, Renoux J, Pinoteau J, et al. Validation d’une épreuve maximale de temps limiteà VMA (vitesse maximale aérobie) et à VO2max. Sci Sports. 1994;9:3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hughson RL, O’Leary DD, Betik AC, et al. Kinetics of oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise near or above peak oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:1812–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hill DW, Halcomb JN, Stevens EC. Oxygen uptake kinetics during severe intensity running and cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:612–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Norris SR, Petersen SR. Effects of endurance training on transient oxygen uptake responses in cyclists. J Sports Sci. 1998;16:733–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Buchheit M, Abbiss C, Peiffer JJ, et al. Performance and physiological responses during a sprint interval training session: relationships with muscle oxygenation and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(2):767–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Powers SK, Dodd S, Beadle RE. Oxygen uptake kinetics in trained athletes differing in VO2max. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1985;54:306–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S. Effect of prior exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake and estimated muscle capillary blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity field running in men. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:460–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Barstow TJ, Jones AM, Nguyen PH, et al. Influence of muscle fiber type and pedal frequency on oxygen uptake kinetics of heavy exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81:1642–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Pringle JS, Doust JH, Carter H, et al. Oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate, heavy and severe intensity “submaximal” exercise in humans: the influence of muscle fibre type and capillarisation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:289–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kilding AE, Winter EM, Fysh M. A comparison of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in middle- and long-distance runners. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:419–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Billat V, Petit B, Koralsztein J. Calibration de la durée des répétition d’une séance d’interval training à la vitesse associée à VO2max en référence au temps limite continu: effet sur les réponses physiologiques et la distance parcourue. Sci Mot. 1996;28:13–20.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Smith TP, McNaughton LR, Marshall KJ. Effects of 4-wk training using Vmax/Tmax on VO2max and performance in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:892–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Smith TP, Coombes JS, Geraghty DP. Optimising high-intensity treadmill training using the running speed at maximal O(2) uptake and the time for which this can be maintained. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:337–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Buchheit M. High-intensity interval training: how to best shape the puzzle piece. International congress of the Australian Strength and conditioning Association, November 9–11th 2012, Brisbane, QS, Australia.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Muller EA. The physiological basis of rest pauses in heavy work. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci. 1953;38:205–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Belcastro AN, Bonen A. Lactic acid removal rates during controlled and uncontrolled recovery exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1975;39:932–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ahmaidi S, Granier P, Taoutaou Z, et al. Effects of active recovery on plasma lactate and anaerobic power following repeated intensive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:450–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, et al. Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1165–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gorostiaga EM, Asiain X, Izquierdo M, et al. Vertical jump performance and blood ammonia and lactate levels during typical training sessions in elite 400-m runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1138–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Weltman A, Stamford BA, Fulco C. Recovery from maximal effort exercise: lactate disappearance and subsequent performance. J Appl Physiol. 1979;47:677–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Buchheit M, Cormie P, Abbiss CR, et al. Muscle deoxygenation during repeated sprint running: effect of active vs. passive recovery. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:418–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dupont G, Moalla W, Matran R, et al. Effect of short recovery intensities on the performance during two Wingate tests. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1170–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al. Metabolism and performance in repeated cycle sprints: active versus passive recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1492–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Lakomy HK, et al. Effects of active recovery on power output during repeated maximal sprint cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;74:461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Connolly DAJ, Brennan KM, Lauzon CD. Effects of active versus passive recovery on power output during repeated bouts of short term, high intensity exercise. J Sports Sci Med 2003:47–51.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Spencer M, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Performance and metabolism in repeated sprint exercise: effect of recovery intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:545–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Thevenet D, Leclair E, Tardieu-Berger M, et al. Influence of recovery intensity on time spent at maximal oxygen uptake during an intermittent session in young, endurance-trained athletes. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:1313–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21:563–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Simoneau JA, Lortie G, Boulay MR, et al. Effects of two high-intensity intermittent training programs interspaced by detraining on human skeletal muscle and performance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1987;56:516–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wu HC, Hsu WH, Chen T. Complete recovery time after exhaustion in high-intensity work. Ergonomics. 2005;48:668–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rowell LB, O’Leary DS. Reflex control of the circulation during exercise: chemoreflexes and mechanoreflexes. J Appl Physiol. 1990;69:407–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Billat V. L’entraînement en pleine nature: conseils de préparation aux sports outdoor. Paris: De Boeck; 2005.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Paavolainen L, Nummela A, Rusko H. Muscle power factors and VO2max as determinants of horizontal and uphill running performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10:286–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Staab JS, Agnew JW, Siconolfi SF. Metabolic and performance responses to uphill and downhill running in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:124–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pringle JS, Carter H, Doust JH, et al. Oxygen uptake kinetics during horizontal and uphill treadmill running in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;88:163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Slawinski J, Dorel S, Hug F, et al. Elite long sprint running: a comparison between incline and level training sessions. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1155–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gajer B, Hanon C, Lehenaff D, et al. Analyse comparée de différentes séances de développement de VO2max. In: Expertise et sport de haut niveau: actes des Entretiens de l’INSEP Novembre 2002. Paris: Insep, 2003.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Minetti AE, Moia C, Roi GS, et al. Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93:1039–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Seiler S, Jøranson K, Olesen BV, et al. Adaptations to aerobic interval training: interactive effects of exercise intensity and total work duration. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(1):74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Millet GP, Libicz S, Borrani F, et al. Effects of increased intensity of intermittent training in runners with differing VO2 kinetics. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90:50–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tardieu-Berger M, Thevenet D, Zouhal H, et al. Effects of active recovery between series on performance during an intermittent exercise model in young endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;93:145–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Thevenet D, Tardieu M, Zouhal H, et al. Influence of exercise intensity on time spent at high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake during an intermittent session in young endurance-trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;102:19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Buchheit M, Millet GP, Parisy A, et al. Supramaximal training and post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation in adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:362–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bisciotti GN. L’incidenza fisiologica dei parametri di durata, intensità e recupero nell’ambito dell’allenamento intermittente. Sienza di Sport 2004: 90-6 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 17 Feb 2013].
  182. 182.
    Dellal A, Keller D, Carling C, et al. Physiologic effects of directional changes in intermittent exercise in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:3219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Belfry GR, Paterson DH, Murias JM, et al. The effects of short recovery duration on VO(2) and muscle deoxygenation during intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(5):1907–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gastin PB. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Med. 2001;31:725–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Rozenek R, Funato K, Kubo J, et al. Physiological responses to interval training sessions at velocities associated with VO2max. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:188–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wakefield BR, Glaister M. Influence of work-interval intensity and duration on time spent at a high percentage of VO2max during intermittent supramaximal exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:2548–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Dupont G, Moalla W, Guinhouya C, et al. Passive versus active recovery during high-intensity intermittent exercises. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Thevenet D, Tardieu-Berger M, Berthoin S, et al. Influence of recovery mode (passive vs. active) on time spent at maximal oxygen uptake during an intermittent session in young and endurance-trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;99:133–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Dupont G, Blondel N, Berthoin S. Performance for short intermittent runs: active recovery vs. passive recovery. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:548–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Dupont G, Berthoin S. Time spent at a high percentage of VO2max for short intermittent runs: active versus passive recovery. Can J Appl Physiol. 2004;29(Suppl):S3–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability—part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med. 2011;41:673–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Dupont G, Millet GP, Guinhouya C, et al. Relationship between oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in repeated running sprints. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;95:27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Buchheit M. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint and jump sequences. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;101:1007–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Buchheit M, Bishop D, Haydar B, et al. Physiological responses to shuttle repeated-sprint running. Int J Sport Med. 2010;31:402–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Balsom PD, Seger JY, Sjodin B, et al. Physiological responses to maximal intensity intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65:144–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bravo DF, Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, et al. Sprint vs. interval training in football. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:668–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Buchheit M, Mendez-Villanueva A, Delhomel G, et al. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated sprints vs. explosive strength training. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:2715–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Tabata I, Irisawa K, Kouzaki M, et al. Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:390–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, et al. Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during repeated sprint exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80:876–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Parolin ML, Chesley A, Matsos MP, et al. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:E890–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Lepretre PM, Koralsztein JP, Billat VL. Effect of exercise intensity on relationship between VO2max and cardiac output. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1357–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    McCole SD, Davis AM, Fueger PT. Is there a disassociation of maximal oxygen consumption and maximal cardiac output? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1265–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gt Cooper. Basic determinants of myocardial hypertrophy: a review of molecular mechanisms. Annu Rev Med. 1997;48:13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Gonzalez-Alonso J, Calbet JA. Reductions in systemic and skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery limit maximal aerobic capacity in humans. Circulation. 2003;107:824–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gonzalez-Alonso J. Point: stroke volume does/does not decline during exercise at maximal effort in healthy individuals. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:275–6; discussion 9–80.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Warburton DE, Gledhill N. Counterpoint: Stroke volume does not decline during exercise at maximal effort in healthy individuals. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:276–8; discussion 8–9.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Coyle EF, Trinity JD. The stroke volume response during or throughout 4-8 min of constant-power exercise that elicits VO2max. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:282–3; author reply 4–5.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Lepretre PM, Foster C, Koralsztein JP, et al. Heart rate deflection point as a strategy to defend stroke volume during incremental exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98:1660–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Cumming GR. Stroke volume during recovery from supine bicycle exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1972;32:575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Astrand PO, Rodhal K, editors. Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise. Series in Health Education, Physical Education, and Recreation. Lower Mitcham (SA). Human Kinetics. New York: MacGraw-Hill, 2003. p. 649.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Fox EL, Mathews DK. Interval training: conditioning for sports and general fitness. Orlando (FL): Saunders College Publishing; 1974.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Takahashi T, Okada A, Saitoh T, et al. Difference in human cardiovascular response between upright and supine recovery from upright cycle exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;81:233–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Charloux A, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Richard R, et al. A new impedance cardiograph device for the non-invasive evaluation of cardiac output at rest and during exercise: comparison with the “direct” Fick method. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82:313–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Richard R, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Charloux A, et al. Non-invasive cardiac output evaluation during a maximal progressive exercise test, using a new impedance cardiograph device. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85:202–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Fontana P, Betschon K, Boutellier U, et al. Cardiac output but not stroke volume is similar in a Wingate and VO2peak test in young men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:155–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Helgerud J, Engen LC, Wisloff U, et al. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1925–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sunderland C, Morris JG, Nevill ME. A heat acclimation protocol for team sports. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:327–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, et al. Effect of training intensity distribution on aerobic fitness variables in elite soccer players: a case study. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Mooney M, O’Brien B, Cormack S, et al. The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football: a mediation approach. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14:447–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Buchheit M, Simpson BM, Mendez-Villaneuva A. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds. Int J Sport Med. 2012;34:40–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Buchheit M, Rabbani A. 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test vs. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1: relationship and sensitivity to training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform; In press.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Armstrong N, Barker AR. Oxygen uptake kinetics in children and adolescents: a review. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009;21:130–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ASPIRE, Football Performance & Science DepartmentAcademy for Sports ExcellenceDohaQatar
  2. 2.High Performance Sport New ZealandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ)Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.Physiology Unit, Sport Science Department, ASPIREAcademy for Sports ExcellenceDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations