Chronic, systemic inflammation is an independent risk factor for several major clinical diseases. In obesity, circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated, possibly due to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from several tissues/cells, including macrophages within adipose tissue, vascular endothelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent evidence supports that adipose tissue hypoxia may be an important mechanism through which enlarged adipose tissue elicits local tissue inflammation and further contributes to systemic inflammation. Current evidence supports that exercise training, such as aerobic and resistance exercise, reduces chronic inflammation, especially in obese individuals with high levels of inflammatory biomarkers undergoing a longer-term intervention. Several studies have reported that this effect is independent of the exercise-induced weight loss. There are several mechanisms through which exercise training reduces chronic inflammation, including its effect on muscle tissue to generate muscle-derived, anti-inflammatory ‘myokine’, its effect on adipose tissue to improve hypoxia and reduce local adipose tissue inflammation, its effect on endothelial cells to reduce leukocyte adhesion and cytokine production systemically, and its effect on the immune system to lower the number of pro-inflammatory cells and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production per cell. Of these potential mechanisms, the effect of exercise training on adipose tissue oxygenation is worth further investigation, as it is very likely that exercise training stimulates adipose tissue angiogenesis and increases blood flow, thereby reducing hypoxia and the associated chronic inflammation in adipose tissue of obese individuals.
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The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the content of this review. No funding was used to assist in the preparation of this review.
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You, T., Arsenis, N.C., Disanzo, B.L. et al. Effects of Exercise Training on Chronic Inflammation in Obesity. Sports Med 43, 243–256 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0023-3
- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
- Adipose Tissue
- Exercise Training
- Resistance Exercise
- Obese Individual