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A Review of Generic Preference-Based Measures for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models

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Generic preference-based measures (GPBMs) of health are used to obtain the quality adjustment weight required to calculate the quality-adjusted life year in health economic models. GPBMs have been developed to use across different interventions and medical conditions and typically consist of a self-complete patient questionnaire, a health state classification system, and preference weights for all states defined by the classification system. Of the six main GPBMs, the three most frequently used are the Health Utilities Index version 3, the EuroQol 5 dimensions (3 and 5 levels), and the Short Form 6 dimensions. There are considerable differences in GPBMs in terms of the content and size of descriptive systems (i.e. the numbers of dimensions of health and levels of severity within these), the methods of valuation [e.g. time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG)], and the populations (e.g. general population, patients) used to value the health states within the descriptive systems. Although GPBMs are anchored at 1 (full health) and 0 (dead), they produce different health state utility values when completed by the same patient. Considerations when selecting a measure for use in a clinical trial include practicality, reliability, validity and responsiveness. Requirements of reimbursement agencies may impose additional restrictions on suitable measures for use in economic evaluations, such as the valuation technique (TTO, SG) or the source of values (general public vs. patients).

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The authors would like to thank Prof. Jon Karnon, PhD, of the University of Adelaide and Dr. Andrew Lloyd, PhD, of Bladen Associates Ltd for their editorial review.

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Authors and Affiliations



JEB reviewed the literature and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. RA made significant edits to the first and subsequent drafts of the manuscript. DR made significant edits to the first and subsequent drafts of the manuscript. HCS made significant edits to the first and subsequent drafts of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to John Brazier.

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This study was funded by an unrestricted grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG.

Conflict of interest

Helene Chevrou-Severac is employed by Takeda. Roberta Ara has no conflicts of interest. Donna Rowen has no conflicts of interest. John Brazier is a member of the EuroQol Group Executive Committee and a developer of the SF-6D, for which commercial users pay a licence fee to the University of Sheffield.

Disclosure statement

This article is published in a special edition journal supplement wholly funded by Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

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Brazier, J., Ara, R., Rowen, D. et al. A Review of Generic Preference-Based Measures for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models. PharmacoEconomics 35 (Suppl 1), 21–31 (2017).

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