, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 25–42 | Cite as

The Societal Cost of Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

  • Huajie JinEmail author
  • Iris Mosweu
Systematic Review



Cost-of-illness (COI) studies provide useful information on the economic burden that schizophrenia imposes on a society.


This study aims to give a general overview of COI studies for schizophrenia and to compare the societal cost of schizophrenia across countries. It also aims to identify the main cost components of schizophrenia and factors associated with higher societal cost to improve the quality and reporting of COI studies for schizophrenia.


We performed an electronic search on multiple databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Health Management Information Consortium [HMIC] and the System for Information on Grey Literature [openSIGLE]) to identify COI studies of schizophrenia published between 1996 and 2016. The primary outcome of this review was societal cost per schizophrenia patient, by cost component. All costs were converted to $US, year 2015 values.


We included 19 studies in this review. The annual societal cost per patient varied from $US5818 in Thailand to $US94,587 in Norway; whereas the lifetime societal cost per patient was estimated to be $US988,264 in Australia (all year 2015 values). The main cost drivers were direct healthcare costs and productivity losses. Factors associated with higher individual costs included patient demographics, severity of disease and methods used to calculate the costs of productivity losses and comorbidities.


This review highlights the large economic burden of schizophrenia. The magnitude of the cost estimates differs considerably across countries, which might be caused by different economic conditions and healthcare systems and widespread methodological heterogeneity among COI studies. Proposed recommendations based on this review can be used to improve the consistency and comparability of COI studies for schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia Gross Domestic Product Productivity Loss Schizophrenia Patient Societal Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Dr. James Shearer for proof reading this manuscript.

Author contributions

Huajie Jin conducted the systematic review and led the writing of the paper. Iris Mosweu performed the first round (title and abstract) screening and the second round (full-text) sifting as the second reviewer, and contributed to the writing of the paper. Huajie Jin will serve as a guarantor for the overall content of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


No funding was received for this review.

Conflict of interest

HJ receives salary support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre at South London. IM receives salary support from King’s College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NIHR. HJ and IM have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

40273_2016_444_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.King’s Health Economics (KHE)Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King’s College LondonLondonUK

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