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Nocturia Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Compared with Other Common Chronic Diseases

Abstract

Objectives

The International Continence Society defines nocturia as the need to void one or more times during the night, with each of the voids preceded and followed by sleep. The chronic sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation experienced by patients with nocturia affects quality of life, compromising both mental and physical well-being. This paper aims to characterise the burden of nocturia by comparing published data from patients with nocturia with data from patients with any of 12 other common chronic conditions, specifically focusing on its impact on work productivity and activity impairment, as measured by the instrument of the same name (WPAI).

Methods

A systematic literature review of multiple data sources identified evaluable studies for inclusion in the analysis. Study eligibility criteria included use of the WPAI instrument in patients with one of a predefined list of chronic conditions. We assessed the quality of each included study using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale and extracted basic study information, work and activity impairment data. To assess how work and activity impairment from nocturia compares with impairment from other common chronic diseases, we conducted two data syntheses (pooled and unpooled).

Results

The number of evaluable studies and the range of overall work productivity impairment reported, respectively, were as follows: nocturia (3; 14–39 %), overactive bladder (5; 11–41 %), irritable bowel syndrome/constipation (14; 21–51 %), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (13; 6–42 %), asthma/allergies (11; 6–40 %), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (7; 19–42 %), sleep problems (3; 12–37 %), arthritis (13; 21–69 %), pain (9; 29–64 %), depression (4; 15–43 %) and gout (2; 20–37 %).

Conclusions

The overall work productivity impairment as a result of nocturia is substantial and was found to be similar to impairment observed as a result of several other more frequently researched common chronic diseases. Greater awareness of the burden of nocturia, a highly bothersome and prevalent condition, will help policy makers and healthcare decision makers provide appropriate management of nocturia.

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Notes

  1. WPAI instructions for activity impairment: “By regular activities, we mean the usual activities you do, such as work around the house, shopping, childcare, exercising, studying, etc. Think about times you were limited in the amount or kind of activities you could do and times you accomplished less than you would like. If health problems affected your activities only a little, choose a low number. Choose a high number if health problems affected your activities a great deal.”

  2. The WPAI database of studies (http://www.reillyassociates.net/WPAI_References.html) includes the following health issues: anemia, angioedema, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, asthma/allergies, cancer, caregivers, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), dermatology, diabetes, dyspepsia, erectile dysfunction, eye disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), general health, gout, headache, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)/chronic constipation, lupus, mental health, multiple sclerosis, neurology, nocturia, obesity/nutrition, OAB, pain, peripheral artery disease (PAD), respiratory, restless legs syndrome, rhinosinusitis, sleep, spondyloarthritis, substance abuse, ulcerative colitis, urinary incontinence, voice disorders, women's health.

  3. For analysis, constipation is combined with IBS, and asthma is combined with rhinitis/allergies, hence 12 common chronic conditions are organised into ten categories to compare with nocturia.

  4. These studies are indicated in Tables 2 and 3.

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Acknowledgments

Paul Miller and Harry Hill conducted the searches, data extraction and data syntheses and contributed to drafting the manuscript. Fredrik Andersson designed the project and contributed to drafting the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Paul S. J. Miller.

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Funding

Paul Miller and Harry Hill received funding from Ferring Pharmaceuticals to undertake this work.

Conflict of interest

Paul Miller has received funding from Ferring Pharmaceuticals for conference travel. Fredrik Andersson is an employee of Ferring Pharmaceuticals, which markets treatments for nocturia.

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Miller, P.S.J., Hill, H. & Andersson, F.L. Nocturia Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Compared with Other Common Chronic Diseases. PharmacoEconomics 34, 1277–1297 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-016-0441-9

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Keywords

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Gout
  • Sleep Problem
  • Disease Area