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PharmacoEconomics

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 305–313 | Cite as

Treatment, Monitoring, and Economic Outcomes of Venous Thromboembolism Among Hospitalized Patients in China

  • Eric Q. WuEmail author
  • Jipan Xie
  • Chun Wu
  • Ella Xiaoyan Du
  • Nanxin Li
  • Ruoding Tan
  • Yuanli Liu
Original Research Article

Abstract

Background

The prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been increasing in China. However, the treatment pattern and economic burden of these patients have not been well-understood.

Objective

The objective of this study was to examine the patient characteristics, treatment pattern, anticoagulant monitoring, and economic burden of VTE among hospitalized patients in China.

Methods

Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE [including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)] between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 were included. Descriptive analysis was conducted for patients’ characteristics, anticoagulant treatment, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring, and hospitalization cost [in 2013 Chinese yuan (Y) and US dollars (US$)]. Multivariate regressions were performed to assess factors associated with oral anticoagulant use and total costs of inpatient care.

Results

A total of 1,047 VTE-related hospitalizations were selected. The sample had a mean age of 62.4 years, with 45.9 % female. About 46.3 % of hospitalizations used heparin only, 35.0 % used warfarin, 0.8 % used rivaroxaban, and 18.0 % did not use anticoagulants. Among hospitalizations where warfarin was used, 90.8 % received at least one INR test and only 30 % had the last INR within the target therapeutic range (2–3) before discharge. The mean (standard deviation) total cost per hospitalization was Y29,114 (43,772) [US$4,757 (7,152)]. PE, VTE as primary diagnosis, female, insurance coverage, anticoagulant treatment, co-morbidities, admission condition, and surgical procedure were significantly associated with inpatient costs.

Conclusions

Conventional anticoagulants were most commonly used in the study sample. Under-monitoring and suboptimal care may be an issue for patients treated with warfarin. The average total inpatient cost of VTE-related hospitalizations is high.

Keywords

Warfarin Pulmonary Embolism Deep Vein Thrombosis International Normalize Ratio Rivaroxaban 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research has been financially supported by Analysis Group, Inc. The authors independently conducted all analyses and wrote the manuscript. The authors controlled the decision to write and submit the manuscript for publication. EQW, JX, EXD, NL, and RT are employees of Analysis Group, Inc.

Authors’ contributions

EQW, JX, EXD, NL, RT, and YL designed the study. EXD, NL, and RT conducted the main analyses. CW, EQW, and JX played a key role in interpreting the data analysis. All authors contribute to drafting and revising the manuscript. EQW, JX, CW, EXD, NL, RT, and YL played a key role in the study conduct and data collection for the analysis used in this manuscript. EQW is the guarantor of the paper.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Q. Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jipan Xie
    • 2
  • Chun Wu
    • 3
  • Ella Xiaoyan Du
    • 1
  • Nanxin Li
    • 1
  • Ruoding Tan
    • 1
  • Yuanli Liu
    • 4
  1. 1.Analysis Group, Inc.BostonUSA
  2. 2.Analysis Group, Inc.New YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyPeking University Shenzhen HospitalShenzhenChina
  4. 4.Department of Global Health and PopulationHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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