The scientific, medical, and lay communities are currently confronted with a serious medical and public health problem related to the marked non-remitting worldwide epidemic of obesity. This ever-increasing prevalence of obesity is accompanied by a host of inherently associated co-morbidities. As a result, obesity is fast becoming the major cause of premature death in the developed world. As pediatric and adult cardiologists, we have seen a dramatic increase in office referrals of overweight and obese children and adolescents, who already have obesity-related degenerative disease processes such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as manifestations of early preclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, not previously observed in this age group. This article presents a review of the literature and recent scientific statements and recommendations issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) regarding the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, including newer identification and treatment strategies for obesity, dyslipidemia, and early subclinical coronary artery disease seen in high-risk children and adolescents.
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No sources of funding were used to conduct this study or prepare this manuscript. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.
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Dhuper, S., Buddhe, S. & Patel, S. Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight Children and Adolescents. Pediatr Drugs 15, 181–190 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40272-013-0011-y
- Obstructive Sleep Apnea
- Bariatric Surgery
- Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding