World Health Organization. Diabetes: fact sheet 312. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
Zimmet P. Diabetes epidemiology as a tool to trigger diabetes research and care. Diabetologia. 1999;42(5):499–518.
Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(6):1069–78.
Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Quality of life and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res. 1999;15(3):205–218.
Bradley C, Speight J. Patient perceptions of diabetes and diabetes therapy: assessing quality of life. Diabetes Metab Res. 2002;18(3):S64–69.
Brown L, Macintyre K, Trujillo L. Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Educ Prev. 2003;15(1):49–69.
Mahajan AP, Sayles JN, Patel VA, Remien RH, Sawires SR, Ortiz DJ, et al. Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS. 2008;22(Suppl. 2):S67–79.
Abadía-Barrero CE, Castro A. Experiences of stigma and access to HAART in children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(5):1219–28.
Parker R, Aggleton P. HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(1):13–24.
Jacoby A, Snape D, Baker GA. Epilepsy and social identity: the stigma of a chronic neurological disorder. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4(3):171–8.
MacLeod JS, Austin JK. Stigma in the lives of adolescents with epilepsy: a review of the literature. Epilepsy Behav. 2003;4(2):112–7.
Whatley AD, Diiorio CK, Yeager K. Examining the relationships of depressive symptoms, stigma, social support and regimen-specific support on quality of life in adult patients with epilepsy. Health Educ Res. 2010;25(4):575–84.
Puhl RM, Heuer CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity. 2009;17(5):941–64.
Puhl RM, Moss-Racusin CA, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Weight stigmatization and bias reduction: perspectives of overweight and obese adults. Health Educ Res. 2008;23(2):347–58.
Zettel-Watson L, Britton M. The impact of obesity on the social participation of older adults. J Gen Psychol. 2008;135(4):409–23.
Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):1343–50.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393–403.
Jones EE, French RS. Social stigma: the psychology of marked relationships. New York: WH Freeman; 1984.
Major B, O’Brien LT. The social psychology of stigma. Annu Rev Psychol. 2005;56(1):393–421.
Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Annu Rev Sociol 2001;27:363–38.
Jacoby A. Felt versus enacted stigma: a concept revisited. Evidence from a study of people with epilepsy in remission. Soc Sci Med. 1994;38(2):269–74.
Link BG, Phelan JC. Stigma and its public health implications. Lancet. 2006;367(9509):528–9.
Weiss MG, Ramakrishna J. Stigma interventions and research for international health. Lancet. 2006;367(9509):536–8.
Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrin Metab Clin. 2003;32(4):805–22.
Bashiri H, Keshavarz A, Madani H, Hooshmandi A, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Ahmadi A. Celiac disease in type-I diabetes mellitus: coexisting phenomenon. J Res Med Sci. 2011;16:401–6.
Van Brakel WH. Measuring health-related stigma: a literature review. Psychol Health Med. 2006;11(3):307–34.
Hsu LKG, Yu MW, Chang H, Summergrad P, Tsang BYP, Chen H. Stigma of depression is more severe in Chinese Americans than Caucasian Americans. Psychiatry. 2008;71(3):210–8.
Fernandes PT, Salgado PCB, Noronha ALA, Barbosa FD, Souza EAP, Sander JW, et al. Prejudice towards chronic diseases: comparison among epilepsy, AIDS and diabetes. Seizure. 2007;16(4):320–3.
Della LJ. Exploring diabetes beliefs in at-risk Appalachia. J Rural Health. 2011;27(1):3–12.
Moutier C, Cornette M, Lehrmann J, Geppert C, Tsao C, DeBoard R, et al. When residents need health care: stigma of the patient role. Acad Psychiatr. 2009;33(6):431–41.
Westbrook MT, Legge V, Pennay M. Attitudes towards disabilities in a multicultural society. Soc Sci Med. 1993;36(5):615–23.
Brod M, Kongsø JH, Lessard S, Christensen TL. Psychological insulin resistance: patient beliefs and implications for diabetes management. Qual Life Res. 2009;18(1):23–32.
Reid TS. Insulin for type 2 diabetes mellitus: separating the myths from the facts. Insulin. 2007;2(4):182–9.
Tan AM, Muthusamy L, Ng CC, Phoon KY, Ow JH, Tan NC. Initiation of insulin for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: what are the issues? A qualitative study. Singap Med J. 2011;52(11):801–9.
Wellard SJ, Rennie S, King R. Perceptions of people with type 2 diabetes about self-management and the efficacy of community based services. Contemp Nurse. 2008;29(2):218–26.
Shiu ATY, Kwan JJYM, Wong RYM. Social stigma as a barrier to diabetes self-management: implications for multi-level interventions. J Clin Nurs. 2003;12(1):149–50.
Broom D, Whittaker A. Controlling diabetes, controlling diabetics: moral language in the management of diabetes type 2. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58(11):2371–82.
Sato E, Ohsawa I, Kataoka J, Miwa M, Tsukagoshi F, Sato J, et al. Socio-psychological problems of patients with late adolescent onset type 1 diabetes: analysis by qualitative research. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2003;66(1–2):21–9.
De-Graft Aikins A. Reframing applied disease stigma research: a multilevel analysis of diabetes stigma in Ghana. J Community Appl Soc. 2006;16(6):426–41.
Singh H, Cinnirella M, Bradley C. Support systems for and barriers to diabetes management in South Asians and Whites in the UK: qualitative study of patients’ perspectives. BMJ Open. 2012;2(6):e001459.
Boyes AD, Latner JD. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships. J Sex Marital Ther. 2009;35(4):282–93.
Chen EY, Brown M. Obesity stigma in sexual relationships. Obes Res. 2005;13(8):1393–7.
Rothblum ED, Brand PA, Miller CT, Oetjen HA. The relationship between obesity, employment discrimination, and employment-related victimization. J Vocat Behav. 1990;37(3):251–66.
Agerström J, Rooth DO. The role of automatic obesity stereotypes in real hiring discrimination. J Appl Psychol. 2011;96(4):790–805.
Berg M, Honkasalo ML. Pregnancy and diabetes: a hermeneutic phenomenological study of women’s experiences. J Psychosom Obst Gyn. 2000;21(1):39–48.
Evans MK, O’Brien B. Gestational diabetes: the meaning of an at-risk pregnancy. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(1):66–81.
Weiler DM, Crist JD. Diabetes self-management in a Latino social environment. Diabetes Educator. 2009;35(2):285–92.
Butt G, Paterson BL, McGuinness LK. Living with the stigma of hepatitis C. Western J Nurs Res. 2008;30(2):204–21.
Baker GA, Brooks J, Buck D, Jacoby A. The stigma of epilepsy: a European perspective. Epilepsia. 2000;41(1):98–104.
Mulvaney SA, Mudasiru E, Schlundt DG, Baughman CL, Fleming M, VanderWoude A, et al. Self-management in type 2 diabetes: an adolescent perspective. Diabetes Educator 2008;34(4):674–82.
Thomas SL, Hyde J, Karunaratne A, Herbert D, Komesaroff PA. Being ‘fat’ in today’s world: a qualitative study of the lived experiences of people with obesity in Australia. Health Expect. 2008;11(4):321–30.
Teixeira ME, Budd GM. Obesity stigma: a newly recognized barrier to comprehensive and effective type 2 diabetes management. J Am Acad Nurse Prac. 2010;22(10):527–33.
Phelan JC, Link BG, Dovidio JF. Stigma and prejudice: one animal or two? Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(3):358–67.
Butt G. Stigma in the context of hepatitis C: concept analysis. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62(6):712–24.
Browne J, Zimmet P, Speight J. Individual responsibility for reducing obesity: the unintended consequences of well intended messages. Med J Aust. 2011;195(7):386.
Bandstra NF, Camfield CS, Camfield PR. Stigma of epilepsy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35(4):436–40.
McNally RJ. Disgust has arrived. J Anxiety Disord. 2002;16(5):561–6.
Dinitz S, Dynes RR, Clarke AC. Deviance: studies in the process of stigmatization and societal reaction. New York: Oxford University Press; 1969.
Vartanian LR. Disgust and perceived control in attitudes toward obese people. Int J Obes. 2010;34(8):1302–7.
Puhl R, Brownell KD. Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obes Res. 2001;9(12):788–805.
Kurzban R, Leary MR. Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: the functions of social exclusion. Psychol Bull. 2001;127(2):187–208.
Heijnders M, Van Der Meij S. The fight against stigma: an overview of stigma-reduction strategies and interventions. Psychol Health Med. 2006;11(3):353–63.
Persky S, Eccleston CP. Impact of genetic causal information on medical students’ clinical encounters with an obese virtual patient: health promotion and social stigma. Ann Behav Med. 2010;41(3):363–72.
Hamra M, Ross MW, Orrs M, D’Agostino A. Relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and HIV-beliefs/knowledge and behaviour in families of HIV infected children in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11(4):513–27.
Pettigrew TF, Tropp LR. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;90(5):751–83.
Weiss MG, Doongaji D, Siddhartha S, Wypij D, Pathare S, Bhatawdekar M, et al. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Contribution to cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health. Brit J Psychiat 1992;160(6):819–30.
Van Brakel WH, Anderson AM, Mutatkar R, Bakirtzief Z, Nicholls PG, Raju M, et al. The Participation Scale: measuring a key concept in public health. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28(4):193–203.