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Don’t despair over difficult-to-treat warts

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Cutaneous warts, common in children and immunocompromised patients, can be painful and socially and functionally restricting. Caused by several human papillomavirus types, they may resolve spontaneously or respond to traditional treatments. If not, pharmacological options for difficult-to-treat warts include intralesional and/or topical immunological and antiviral agents, with clearance of all warts achieved in many patients. Vaccines, Candida albicans antigen, vitamin D analogues, cidofovir, imiquimod and chemotherapeutics are worth considering.

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Correspondence to Connie Kang.

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The preparation of this review was not supported by any external funding.

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C. Fenton, a contracted employee of Adis International Ltd/Springer Nature, and C. Kang, a salaried employee of Adis International Ltd/Springer Nature, declare no relevant conflicts of interest. All authors contributed to the review and are responsible for the article content.

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Fenton, C., Kang, C. Don’t despair over difficult-to-treat warts. Drugs Ther Perspect 37, 503–507 (2021).

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