Assessment of the risk of acute kidney injury associated with the use of pantoprazole and esomeprazole
Many recent observational studies suggest that there is an association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and kidney disease, but no studies comparing the relative risk between PPIs have been conducted. Hence, we designed a study to evaluate the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with the use of pantoprazole and esomeprazole.
This cross-sectional pilot study included 52 pantoprazole users, 51 esomeprazole users and 50 non-PPI users. Biochemical parameters, such as urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were determined to estimate the risk of AKI. Relative to non-exposure to PPIs, the use of pantoprazole increased the risk of AKI, as did the use of esomeprazole.
Serum magnesium values were inversely correlated with the NGAL levels in the pantoprazole and esomeprazole group, but not in the non-exposed group.
Our study reveals that the use of pantoprazole and esomeprazole are both associated with an increased risk of AKI.
We would like to thank Prof. K. S. Lakshmi, Dean, SRM College of Pharmacy, for her kind support throughout the study. The authors would also like to thank all subjects, nurses, doctors, and research assistants who have contributed to this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no competing interests.
Financial support was provided by the SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, India.
The study was conducted according to the standards of the International Committee on Harmonization on Good Clinical Practice and the revised version of the Declaration of Helsinki. This study protocol was approved by the institutional human ethics committee of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre (Permission No. 1062/IEC/2016).
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