A Critical Review of Nebivolol and its Fixed-Dose Combinations in the Treatment of Hypertension
β-Adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are well-known useful and cost-effective drugs for managing hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. However, it is often difficult to use β-blockers for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, most β-blockers negatively influence glucose or lipid metabolism. Nebivolol is a third-generation lipophilic β-1 receptor-selective blocker with nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory effects, metabolically neutral and usually well tolerated by patients with asthma or COPD. Nebivolol has significant effects of reduction in central blood pressure and improvements in endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. To summarize the merits and demerits of nebivolol in different clinical situations, we conducted a review using the word ‘nebivolol’ on Pubmed and Embase, limiting the search to hypertension, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. This review summarizes the clinical studies on nebivolol itself and on the combination of nebivolol with other antihypertensive drugs, such as hydrochlorothiazide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, and amlodipine. Most studies showed the safety and well-tolerated profile of nebivolol and the combination of nebivolol with other antihypertensive drugs, which suggests that new fixed combinations of nebivolol with other antihypertensive drugs would be useful for patients who are unable to tolerate traditional β-blockers.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No funding was received for the preparation of this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
CB and AFGC have received grants and are part of consulting boards of Menarini Pharmaceutical Industries SpA (Firenze, Italy). MK declares that they haveno potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to the contents of this manuscript.
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