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Table 3 Estimates of patient and practice level determinants of medication unsafety

From: Primary Care Medication Safety Surveillance with Integrated Primary and Secondary Care Electronic Health Records: A Cross-Sectional Study

Variable/type Monitoring indicators Prescribing indicators
Prevalence Univariate odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio Prevalence Univariate odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
Patient-level covariates
 Age
  18–50 19.77 % (52/263) 1 1 2.56 % (675/26,410) 1 1
  51–60 18.53 % (58/313) 0.73 (0.47, 1.13) 0.94 (0.59, 1.48) 3.6 % (304/8448) 1.63 (1.41, 1.89) 0.86 (0.74, 1)
  61–70 11.66 % (75/643) 0.35 (0.23, 0.53) 0.46 (0.3, 0.71) 8.62 % (1228/14,238) 3.7 (3.3, 4.15) 1.66 (1.47, 1.88)
  71–80 6.34 % (274/4322) 0.27 (0.18, 0.4) 0.38 (0.25, 0.56) 8.72 % (1096/12,567) 3.4 (3.02, 3.84) 1.28 (1.12, 1.45)
  >80 6.89 % (316/4587) 0.29 (0.19, 0.42) 0.4 (0.27, 0.6) 6.09 % (530/8707) 2.18 (1.9, 2.49) 0.81 (0.7, 0.94)
 Polypharmacy
  0–1 14.92 % (37/248) 1 1 2.05 % (680/33,172) 1 1
  2–4 10.33 % (209/2023) 0.98 (0.57, 1.68) 1.25 (0.71, 2.17) 6.1 % (999/16,375) 3.25 (2.89, 3.66) 3.17 (2.81, 3.58)
  5–7 7.66 % (259/3381) 0.65 (0.38, 1.11) 0.87 (0.5, 1.51) 8.44 % (914/10,830) 4.63 (4.1, 5.22) 4.58 (4.04, 5.2)
  8–10 5.98 % (148/2476) 0.39 (0.23, 0.67) 0.53 (0.3, 0.93) 11.01 % (639/5803) 6.68 (5.88, 7.59) 6.74 (5.89, 7.72)
  >10 6.1 % (122/2000) 0.27 (0.16, 0.47] 0.36 (0.21, 0.64] 14.34 % (601/4190) 9.97 (8.81, 11.3) 10 (8.73, 11.46)
 Gender
  Female 7.76 % (439/5660) 1 1 5.01 % (2136/42,650) 1
  Male 7.52 % (336/4468) 0.81 (0.69, 0.95) 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) 6.12 % (1697/27,720) 0.97 (0.9, 1.04)
 Patient IMD
  ≤20 6.36 % (174/2738) 1 5.72 % (1007/17,616) 1 1
  >20–≤32 7.06 % (175/2477) 1.11 (0.88, 1.4) 5.37 % (890/16,579) 0.99 (0.9, 1.1) 0.96 (0.86, 1.06)
  >32–≤50 8.39 % (228/2716) 1.13 (0.9, 1.43) 5.45 % (1040/19,079) 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 0.96 (0.87, 1.06)
  >50 9.01 % (198/2197) 1.08 (0.84, 1.39) 5.24 % (896/17,096) 0.99 (0.89, 1.1) 0.85 (0.76, 0.96)
General practice-level covariates
 Training
  No 8.22 % (602/7325) 1 1 5.54 % (2769/50,009) 1
  Yes 6.17 % (173/2803) 0.6 (0.32, 1.13) 0.5 (0.29, 0.88) 5.23 % (1064/20,361) 0.97 (0.73, 1.3)
 Practice IMD
  ≤28.9 6.04 % (235/3890) 1 1 6.04 % (1558/25,781) 1
  >28.9–≤36.5 6.27 % (142/2265) 1.11 (0.61, 2.02) 1.09 (0.6, 1.96) 4.59 % (629/13,703) 0.77 (0.58, 1.04)
  >36.5–≤46.1 7.84 % (171/2181) 1.22 (0.67, 2.25) 1.3 (0.72, 2.35) 5.33 % (883/16,561) 0.98 (0.73, 1.31)
  >46.1 12.67 % (227/1792) 2.78 (1.54, 5.01) 3.1 (1.74, 5.53) 5.33 % (763/14,325) 1.02 (0.76, 1.37)
 GP system
  EMIS 8.14 % (162/1991) 1 6.55 % (940/14,341) 1 1
  Vision 7.53 % (613/8137) 0.92 (0.53, 1.62) 5.16 % (2893/56,029) 0.81 (0.64, 1.04) 0.8 (0.63, 1.02)
 List size
  ≤2.4 K 11.77 % (121/1028) 1 5.62 % (373/6637) 1
  >2.4 K–≤3.29 K 10.76 % (127/1180) 0.73 (0.37, 1.43) 6.06 % (561/9255) 1.13 (0.82, 1.55)
  >3.29 K–≤6.47 K 5.52 % (152/2753) 0.4 (0.21, 0.77) 5.63 % (1008/17,915) 0.98 (0.72, 1.33)
  >6.47 K 7.26 % (375/5167) 0.57 (0.3, 1.08) 5.17 % (1891/36,563) 0.91 (0.67, 1.23)
 Mean age
  ≤35.5 8.31 % (113/1360) 1 4.17 % (525/12,584) 1
  >35.5–≤39.0 8.53 % (177/2075) 0.77 (0.37, 1.59) 5.56 % (902/16,220) 1.42 (1.03, 1.95)
  >39.0–≤41.2 7.5 % (239/3187) 0.88 (0.43, 1.8) 5.59 % (1199/21,432) 1.32 (0.96, 1.81)
  >41.2 7.02 % (246/3506) 0.66 (0.32, 1.36) 5.99 % (1207/20,134) 1.31 (0.95, 1.79)
  1. IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation