The effects of tranexamic acid on spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in reducing hematoma expansion and mortality as well as its role in thromboembolic complications and in the improvement of functional outcomes remain substantially uncertain.
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Several databases were searched from inception up to 20 June, 2021. We included randomized controlled trials that compared tranexamic acid with placebo or no treatment for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. The primary outcomes were hematoma expansion and 90-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were hemorrhagic volume change, thromboembolic complications, and functional outcomes.
Overall, six trials with 2800 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Tranexamic acid was associated with a reduced risk of hematoma expansion (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77–0.99, p = 0.03, I2 = 0%, six trials with 2800 participants) and a lessening of hematoma volume change (mean difference − 1.28, 95% CI − 2.44 to − 0.12; p = 0.03; I2 = 0%, four trials with 2626 participants), without a corresponding higher rate of major thromboembolic complications (relative risk 1.20, 95% CI 0.85–1.69; p = 0.80; I2 = 0%, five trials with 2759 participants). The present analysis also demonstrated that tranexamic acid had no effect on reducing 90-day mortality (relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.88–1.19; p = 0.80; I2 = 0%, five trials with 2770 participants).
In adults with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, tranexamic acid reduced the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage growth compared with the control. The effects on 90-day mortality remained inconclusive. Further studies should report death within 24 h and death due to bleeding whenever possible.
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The National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFA0108604; No. 2018YFA0108603); 1·3·5 project for disciplines of excellence–Clinical Research Incubation Project, West China Hospital, Sichuan University (2018HXFH008; 2018HXFH010).
Conflict of interest
Xing Wang, Lu Ma, Jinlei Song, and Chao You have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to the contents of this manuscript.
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The authors agreed to share data by reasonable request from a qualified investigator.
XW and CY designed the meta-analysis. XW, JS, and LM searched for relevant studies, selected the studies, and extracted the relevant information. XW and LM synthesized the data. XW wrote the first draft of the paper. All authors revised the manuscript and approved the final version as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
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Wang, X., Ma, L., Song, J. et al. Tranexamic Acid for Adult Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis. CNS Drugs 35, 1163–1172 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-021-00865-2