Advertisement

CNS Drugs

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 1071–1072 | Cite as

New Hope for Survivors of Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Ian Clark
Commentary

In mid-2010, an editorial marking the 40th anniversary of the International Journal of Stroke was signed by over 50 leaders in the field. It provided a frank commentary on what they regarded as the inability of present mainstream stroke research directions to address the needs of patients [1]. In view of what they described as a dearth of advances leading to new targets for therapy, they urged their field to break down its silo mentality and embrace new ideas and approaches from other scientific disciplines and diseases. In short, to listen to outsiders and through them learn to think outside the box.

A paper in this issue of CNS Drugsby Tobinick et al. might well have provided them such an opportunity. In more than 600 consecutive stroke patients, years after the initial ischaemic insult, highly significant improvements in a large range of clinical parameters were recorded at 30 min, 1 week and 3 weeks after a single dose of 25 mg of etanercept. A smaller number of patients who had...

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Etanercept Fibrinolytic Enzyme Stroke Event Ischaemic Insult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

No sources of funding were received to prepare this article. The author has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, et al. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Int J Stroke. 2010;5(4):238–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tobinick EL, Gross H, Weinberger A, et al. TNF-alpha modulation for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month pilot study. MedGenMed Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;8(2):25.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tobinick EL, Gross H. Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer’s disease following perispinal etanercept administration. J Neuroinflamm. 2008;5:2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Batson O. The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases. Ann Surg. 1940;112:138–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wen TS, Randall DC, Zolman JF. Protein accumulation in cerebrospinal fluid during −90 degrees head-down tilt in rabbit. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77(3):1081–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qin LY, Wu XF, Block ML, et al. Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Glia. 2007;55(5):453–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaushal V, Schlichter LC. Mechanisms of microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in a new model of the stroke penumbra. J Neurosci. 2008;28(9):2221–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clark IA, Alleva LM, Vissel B. The roles of TNF in brain dysfunction and disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;128:519–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simpkins JW, Gatson JW, Wigginton JG. Commentary on “a roadmap for the prevention of dementia II. Leon Thal Symposium 2008.” Rationale and recommendations for first evaluating anti-Alzheimer’s disease medications in acute brain injury patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5(2):143–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chio CC, Lin JW, Chang MW, et al. Therapeutic evaluation of etanercept in a model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem. 2010;115:921–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baratz R, Tweedie D, Rubovitch V, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis inhibitor, 3,6′-dithiothalidomide, reverses behavioral impairments induced by minimal traumatic brain injury in mice. J Neurochem. 2011;118(6):1032–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tobinick E. Rapid improvement of chronic stroke deficits after perispinal etanercept: three consecutive cases. CNS Drugs. 2011;25(2):145–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alkam T, Nitta A, Mizoguchi H, et al. Restraining tumor necrosis factor-alpha by thalidomide prevents the amyloid beta-induced impairment of recognition memory in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189(1):100–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhou QH, Boado RJ, Hui EK, et al. Brain-penetrating tumor necrosis factor decoy receptor in the mouse. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39(1):71–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Russo I, Caracciolo L, Tweedie D, et al. 3,6′-Dithiothalidomide, a new TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor, attenuates the effect of Abeta(1–42) intracerebroventricular injection on hippocampal neurogenesis and memory deficit. J Neurochem. 2012;122(6):1181–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research School of BiologyAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations