Psychotropic medications and alcohol are potential risk factors for falls in older adults. However, there has been no appraisal of the literature on whether these medications, both singly and in combination with alcohol, are associated with falls in community dwelling older adults (those aged 60 years and older living independently without care). Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and SCOPUS) and the grey literature (i.e. WHO, Public Health Agency of Canada) were searched using the following terms: benzodiazepine, anti-psychotics, anti-depressants, anti-epileptic, lithium, memantine, anti-hypertensives: drug or medication, aged or elderly or older adult or senior, accidental falls or falls or falling, and alcohol. Studies were included if (1) they were primary studies; (2) included community dwelling persons aged 60 years and older; (3) alcohol use was an independent variable; (4) studied medications of interest; (5) falls was the outcome variable; and (6) published in English. Articles published until July 2018 were included. The search yielded 29 studies. The findings show that both benzodiazepines and antidepressants (particularly SSRIs) are associated with fall risk while antipsychotics, anti-hypertensives, anti-epileptics and alcohol are not. No statements were made about lithium or memantine due to a lack of research studies. Future studies with adequate power to detect significant associations between psychotropic medications and falls are needed, especially among individual benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Jackie Stapleton, Librarian at the University of Waterloo for assisting with the database search.
This project is funded by the University of Waterloo International Research and Partnership Grant (Principle investigator: A. Crizzle).
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
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Laberge, S., Crizzle, A.M. A Literature Review of Psychotropic Medications and Alcohol as Risk Factors for Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults. Clin Drug Investig 39, 117–139 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-018-0721-6