Clinical Drug Investigation

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 457–462 | Cite as

Differences in Metabolic Factors Between Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Non-pharmacological Obesity in Youths

  • Simone Pisano
  • Giangennaro Coppola
  • Gennaro Catone
  • Marco Carotenuto
  • Raffaella Iuliano
  • Vittoria D’Esposito
  • Serena Cabaro
  • Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice
  • Carmela Bravaccio
  • Pietro Formisano
short communication



Youth exposed to antipsychotics may experience several metabolic consequences that often limit the effectiveness of this class of drugs.


The aim of this study was to compare several metabolic markers between subjects who experienced antipsychotic-induced weight gain and untreated obese patients.


Nineteen non-diabetic youth (mean age 159 months, mean body mass index z-score 1.81) experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched group of non-diabetic obese patients with no record of treatment (n = 19, mean age 147 months, mean body mass index z-score 2) were compared for a wide range of metabolic factors using a Bioplex Multiplex system.


C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and adipsin were significantly higher in the antipsychotic-induced weight gain group, whereas visfatin was significantly higher in the untreated obese patients. When age, sex, pubertal status, and body mass index were controlled, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and visfatin remained significant, whereas adipsin fell slightly below the threshold of statistical significance. No other statistically significant difference emerged.


Antipsychotic-induced weight gain and untreated obesity showed some similarities, confirming that levels of some hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, are related to body mass index rather than to antipsychotic exposure. Some differences were also noted; for example, the antipsychotic-induced weight gain group displayed higher C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and adipsin, which may reflect β-cell stress and may suggest susceptibility to insulin resistance and lower visfatin, possibly indicating a lower inflammatory status.



No funding was received for the preparation of this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Simone Pisano, Giangennaro Coppola, Gennaro Catone, Marco Carotenuto, Raffaella Iuliano, Vittoria D’Esposito, Serena Cabaro, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice, Carmela Bravaccio, and Pietro Formisano have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this study.

Ethics approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Campania approved the study.

Consent to participate

All caregivers and patients received a thorough explanation of the purpose of the study and were asked if they were willing to participate; caregivers signed the consent form.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Pisano
    • 1
  • Giangennaro Coppola
    • 1
  • Gennaro Catone
    • 2
  • Marco Carotenuto
    • 3
  • Raffaella Iuliano
    • 4
  • Vittoria D’Esposito
    • 5
  • Serena Cabaro
    • 5
  • Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice
    • 6
  • Carmela Bravaccio
    • 7
  • Pietro Formisano
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, S. Giovanni di Dio and Ruggi d’Aragona HospitalUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Educational ScienceSuor Orsola Benicasa UniversityNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive MedicineUniversity of CampaniaNaplesItaly
  4. 4.Department of PaediatricsHospital “Loreto Mare”NaplesItaly
  5. 5.Department of Translational MedicineFederico II University of Naples and URT “Genomics of Diabetes” of the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology, National Council of Research (CNR)NaplesItaly
  6. 6.Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialist SurgeryUniversity of CampaniaNaplesItaly
  7. 7.Department of Translational MedicineFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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