Skip to main content

Efficacy and Safety of Vinpocetine as Part of Treatment for Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Multicenter CAVIN (Chinese Assessment for Vinpocetine in Neurology) Trial



The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous vinpocetine administration as part of a comprehensive treatment for acute cerebral infarction in a Chinese population.


610 acute cerebral infarction patients were randomized into two groups: the vinpocetine group (469 patients) received cytidine disphosphate choline 0.4–0.5 g in combination with aspirin 75–100 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily, plus vinpocetine 30 mg intravenously once daily for 7 days, while the control group (141 patients) received cytidine disphosphate choline 0.4–0.5 g in combination with aspirin 75–100 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily for 7 days. Additionally, patients received medications for symptoms such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and intracranial hypertension when necessary. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale, and Barthel Index (BI) scores and transcranial doppler (TCD) were assessed at baseline, 7, 14, and 90 days after treatment. Adverse events (AEs) and abnormalities in blood, urine, liver, and kidney function were monitored.


MMSE, NIHSS, and BI scores were significantly higher in the vinpocetine group than in the control group 90 days after treatment, indicating significantly improved cognitive skill, neurological function, and quality of life (QOL) in the vinpocetine group versus the control group. Importantly, such effects of vinpocetine were maintained over time. In addition, TCD monitoring showed significantly increased cerebral blood flow associated with vinpocetine versus control. No significant difference in safety was noted between the two groups.


When used as part of treatment for acute cerebral infarction, vinpocetine improves patients’ cerebral blood flow, cognitive quality, neurological functions, and QOL. Vinpocetine could be an effective and safe component of treatment regimen for acute cerebral infarction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Bansal S, Sangha KS, Khatri P. Drug treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2013;13:57–69.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Venketasubramanian N, Chen CL, Gan RN, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter study to investigate CHInese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke recovery (CHIMES study). Int J Stroke. 2009;4:54–60.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, et al. Intraarterial thrombolysis trials in acute ischemic stroke. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:S77–85.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Bereczki D, Fekete I. Vinpocetine for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;1:CD000480.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Patyar S, Prakash A, Modi M, et al. Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:618–28.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Cai Y, Li JD, Yan C. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:439–43.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Tamaki N, Matsumoto S. Agents to improve cerebrovascular circulation and cerebral metabolism–vinpocetine. Nihon Rinsho. 1985;43:376–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Szobor A, Klein M. Ethyl apovincaminate therapy in neurovascular diseases. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26:1984–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Bagoly E, Fehér G, Szapáry L. The role of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases based in human studies. Orv Hetil. 2007;148:1353–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Burtsev EM, Savkov VS, Shprakh VV, et al. 10-year experience with using Cavinton in cerebrovascular disorders. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1992;92:56–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Szapáry L, Horváth B, Alexy T, et al. Effect of vinpocetin on the hemorheologic parameters in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease. Orv Hetil. 2003;144:973–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Tabeeva GR. Azimova IuE. The multimodal strategy for the neuroprotection in stroke: results of the Russian multicenter clinical-epidemiological program SOKOL [in Russian]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2012;112:20–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Feigin VL, Doronin BM, Popova TF, et al. Vinpocetine treatment in acute ischaemic stroke: a pilot single-blind randomized clinical trial. Eur J Neurol. 2001;8:81–5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Overgaard K. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014;23:1764–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Clark WM. Efficacy of citicoline as an acute stroke treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:839–46.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Shi PY, Zhou XC, Yin XX, et al. Early application of citicoline in the treatment of acute stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016;36(2):270–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhu Y, Zhang G, Zhao J, et al. Efficacy and safety of mildronate for acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled phase II multicenter trial. Clin Drug Investig. 2013;33:755–60.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Sulter G, Steen C, De Keyser J. Use of the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale in acute stroke trials. Stroke. 1999;30:1538–41.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Dávalos A, Alvarez-Sabín J, Castillo J, et al. Citicoline in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study (ICTUS trial). Lancet. 2012;380:349–57.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Mitta M, Goel D, Bansal KK, et al. Edaravone—citicoline comparative study in acute ischemic stroke (ECCS-AIS). J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:36–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Bustamante A, Giralt D, Garcia-Bonilla L, et al. Citicoline in pre-clinical animal models of stroke: a meta-analysis shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing steps for jumping into a stroke clinical trial. J Neurochem. 2012;123:217–25.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Dávalos A, Castillo J, Alvarez-Sabín J, et al. Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: an individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trials. Stroke. 2002;33:2850–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Wang Q, Ye H, Su Y. Transcranial Doppler sonography monitors cerebral blood flow of mannitol-treated patients with acute large hemispheric infarction. Turk Neurosurg. 2014;24:333–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Katsura K, Suda S, Abe A, et al. Brain protection therapy in acute cerebral infarction. J Nippon Med Sch. 2012;79:104–10.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Han SW, Lee SS, Kim SH, et al. Effect of cilostazol in acute lacunar infarction based on pulsatility index of transcranial Doppler (ECLIPse): a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neurol. 2013;69:33–40.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Shanghai Rxmidas Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd. Chinese Assessment for Vinpocetine in Neurology (CAVIN) [ identifier NCT01400035]. US National Institutes of Health, Accessed 20 May 2016.

Download references


We would like to thank the Hungarian Embassy in China for their support of this study. We would further like to thank Beijing Military General Hospital, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, The Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, The People’s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Beijing Haidian Hospital, Tianjin Hospital of Chinese Traditional and Western Medicine, Tianjin Fifth Central Hospital, Xi’an Central Hospital, Wuxi No. 2 People’s Hospital, The People’s Hospital of Lvshunkou Dalian, and Anshan Changda Hospital for their participation in and support of this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Weiwei Zhang.

Ethics declarations


This study is partly funded by the Chinese-Hungarian Scientific Cooperation Fund supported by the Hungary Embassy in China. The funding source did not play any role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Conflict of interest

Weiwei Zhang, Yining Huang, Ying Li, Liming Tan, Jianfei Nao, Hongtao Hu, Jingyu Zhang, Chen Li, Yuenan Kong, and Yulin Song declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures in this study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its amendments and were approved by the institutional review board of each participating hospital.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all of the enrolled patients.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, W., Huang, Y., Li, Y. et al. Efficacy and Safety of Vinpocetine as Part of Treatment for Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Multicenter CAVIN (Chinese Assessment for Vinpocetine in Neurology) Trial. Clin Drug Investig 36, 697–704 (2016).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Clopidogrel
  • Assessment Time
  • Vinpocetine
  • Acute Cerebral Infarction