Haagsma JA, Graetz N, Bolliger I, Naghavi M, Higashi H, Mullany EC, et al. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. Inj Prev. 2016;22:3–18.
Skinner R, McFaull S, Draca J, Frechette M, Kaur J, Pearson C, et al. Suicide and self-inflicted injury hospitalizations in Canada (1979 to 2014/15). Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2016;36:243–51.
Statistics Canada. Health Fact Sheets—the ten leading causes of death, 2012 [Internet]. 2015. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2015001/article/14296-eng.htm. Accessed 29 Aug 2019.
Corso PS, Mercy JA, Simon TR, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. Medical costs and productivity losses due to interpersonal and self-directed violence in the United States. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:474–82.
Matsubayashi T, Ueda M. The effect of national suicide-prevention programs on suicide rates in 21 OECD nations. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:1395–400.
Hegerl PDU, Wittmann M, Arensman E, van Audenhove C, Bouleau J-H, van der Feltz-Cornelis C, et al. The ‘European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD)’: a multifaceted, community-based action programme against depression and suicidality. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008;9:51–8.
Eggertson L, Patrick K. Canada needs a national suicide-prevention strategy. CMAJ. 2016;188:E309–10.
Eggertson L. Quebec cuts suicide rates despite lack of a national prevention strategy. iPolitics [Internet]. https://ipolitics.ca/2015/06/19/quebec-cuts-suicide-rates-despite-lack-of-a-national-prevention-strategy/. Accessed 29 Aug 2019.
Vasiliadis H-M, Lesage A, Latimer E, Seguin M. Implementing suicide prevention programs: costs and potential life years saved in Canada. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2015;18:147–55.
Statistics Canada. Population by year, by province and territory (CANSIM table 051-0001) [Internet]. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo02a-eng.htm. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Patten SB, Williams JV, Lavorato DH, Wang JL, McDonald K, Bulloch AG. Descriptive epidemiology of major depressive disorder in Canada in 2012. Can J Psychiatry. 2015;60:23–30.
Pil L, Pauwels K, Muijzers E, Portzky G, Annemans L. Cost-effectiveness of a helpline for suicide-prevention. J Telemed Telecare. 2013;19:273–81.
Carroll R, Metcalfe C, Gunnell D. Hospital presenting self-harm and risk of fatal and non-fatal repetition: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9:e89944.
Finkelstein Y, Macdonald EM, Hollands S, Sivilotti ML, Hutson JR, Mamdani MM, et al. Risk of suicide following deliberate self-poisoning. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72:570–5.
Statistics Canada. Elements of the life table, Canada, provinces and territories (CANSIM Table 053-0003) [Internet]. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=530003. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Fleurence RL, Hollenbeak CS. Rates and probabilities in economic modelling: transformation, translation and appropriate application. PharmacoEconomics. 2007;25:3–6.
Hawton K, Witt KG, Salisbury TLT, Arensman E, Gunnell D, Hazell P, et al. Psychosocial interventions following self-harm in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3:740–50.
MHASEF Research Team. Mental health and addictions system performance in Ontario: a baseline scorecard. Toronto: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences; 2018.
Speechley M, Stavraky KM. The adequacy of suicide statistics for use in epidemiology and public health. Can J Public Health Rev Can Sante Publique. 1991;82:38–42.
Van den Hout W. The value of productivity: human-capital versus friction-cost method. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:i89–91.
Canadian Institute for Health Information. National Health Expenditure Trends|CIHI [Internet]. 2018. https://www.cihi.ca/en/national-health-expenditure-trends. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Statistics Canada. Average weekly earnings (including overtime), by province and territory [Internet]. 2017. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/labr79-eng.htm. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Tanuseputro P, Wodchis WP, Fowler R, Walker P, Bai YQ, Bronskill SE, et al. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0121759.
Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey estimates (LFS), by provinces, territories and economic regions based on 2011 Census boundaries [Internet]. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820123&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=37&tabMode=dataTable&csid=. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Krol M, Papenburg J, Tan SS, Brouwer W, Hakkaart L. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs. Eur J Health Econ. 2016;17:391–402.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Purchasing Power Parity [Internet]. 2018. https://data.oecd.org/conversion/purchasing-power-parities-ppp.htm. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Statistics Canada. Consumer Price Index, health and personal care, by province (Canada) [Internet]. 2018. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/cv.action?pid=1810000501#timeframe. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Fleishman JA. Demographic and clinical variations in health status [Internet]. Agency for healthcare research and quality. 2005. https://meps.ahrq.gov/data_files/publications/mr15/mr15.shtml. Accessed 22 June 2019.
van Spijker BA, van Straten A, Kerkhof AJ, Hoeymans N, Smit F. Disability weights for suicidal thoughts and non-fatal suicide attempts. J Affect Disord. 2011;134:341–7.
Mathers C, Vos T, Stevenson C. The burden of disease and injury in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1999.
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Guidelines for the economic evaluation of health technologies, 4th ed. Canada, Ottawa. 2017.
Manchanda R, Legood R, Burnell M, McGuire A, Raikou M, Loggenberg K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of population screening for BRCA mutations in Ashkenazi jewish women compared with family history-based testing. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107:dju380.
Marra CA, Esdaile JM, Anis AH. Practical pharmacogenetics: the cost effectiveness of screening for thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphisms in patients with rheumatological conditions treated with azathioprine. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:2507–12.
You JH, Tam L, Lee NL. Cost-effectiveness of molecular point-of-care testing for influenza viruses in elderly patients at ambulatory care setting. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0182091.
International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Pharmacoeconomic guidelines around the world [Internet]. 2017. https://tools.ispor.org/peguidelines/. Accessed 29 Aug 2019.
Gray A, Clarke P, Wolstenholme J, Wordsworth S. Applied methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.
Singh SM, Micieli A, Wijeysundera HC. An economic evaluation of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion: dabigatran and warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2013;127:2414–23.
Abdel-Qadir H, Roifman I, Wijeysundera HC. Cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor for dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: a decision-analytic model. CMAJ Open. 2015;3:E438.
Butt T, Patel PJ, Tufail A, Rubin GS. Modelling cost effectiveness in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: the impact of using contrast sensitivity vs. visual acuity. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2014;12:289–97.
Yang NH, Dharmar M, Yoo B-K, Leigh JP, Kuppermann N, Romano PS, et al. Economic evaluation of pediatric telemedicine consultations to rural emergency departments. Med Decis Making. 2015;35:773–83.
Munzer A. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis (PSA) on values that change by cycle [Internet]. 2014. http://treeage.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/222718208-Probabilistic-Sensitivity-Analysis-PSA-on-values-that-change-by-cycle. Accessed 22 June 2019.
TreeAge Software Inc. TreeAge Pro [Internet]. Williamstown, Massachusetts, USA. 2016. https://www.treeage.com/. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Whitmer DA, Woods DL. Analysis of the cost effectiveness of a suicide barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge. Crisis. 2013;34:98–106.
Mihalopoulos C, Vos T, Pirkis J, Carter R. The economic analysis of prevention in mental health programs. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2011;7:169–201.
Park A-L, Gysin-Maillart A, Müller TJ, Exadaktylos A, Michel K. Cost-effectiveness of a brief structured intervention program aimed at preventing repeat suicide attempts among those who previously attempted suicide: a secondary analysis of the ASSIP randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1:e183680.
Denchev P, Pearson JL, Allen MH, Claassen CA, Currier GW, Zatzick DF, et al. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce suicide risk among hospital emergency department patients. Psychiatr Serv. 2017;69:23–31.
Kapur N, Cooper J, O’Connor RC, Hawton K. Non-suicidal self-injury vs attempted suicide: new diagnosis or false dichotomy? Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:326–8.