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Eosinophilic Dermatoses: Recognition and Management

Abstract

Eosinophilic dermatoses encompass a broad spectrum of diseases of different etiologies hallmarked by eosinophilic infiltration of the skin and/or mucous membranes, with or without associated blood eosinophilia. The wide range of dermatological manifestations of this spectrum, including nodules and plaques, pustules, blisters, ulcers, and urticarial lesions, is reflected in a non-univocal classification system. We identified six groups of eosinophilic dermatoses based on the predominant anatomic level of involvement: (1) epidermal; (2) of the dermal–epidermal junction; (3) dermal; (4) of the hypodermis and muscle fascia; (5) of the pilosebaceous unit; and (6) vascular/perivascular. We review clinicopathologic features and management of diseases belonging to each group, particularly: (1) pemphigus herpetiformis and atopic dermatitis as prototypes of the epidermal group; (2) bullous pemphigoid as prototypic eosinophilic dermatosis of the dermal–epidermal junction; (3) eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome), hypereosinophilic syndromes, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy and chronic spontaneous urticaria as paradigmatic dermal eosinophilic dermatoses; (4) eosinophilic fasciitis as an eosinophilic dermatosis with predominant involvement of the hypodermis and muscle fascia; (5) eosinophilic pustular folliculitis as a model of the pilosebaceous unit involvement; and (6) granuloma faciale, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, belonging to the vascular/perivascular group.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Raffaele Gianotti and Antonella Coggi for providing skin histopathology images and Claudia Menicanti for providing the clinical picture of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia.

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Angelo Valerio Marzano and Giovanni Genovese have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.

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Marzano, A.V., Genovese, G. Eosinophilic Dermatoses: Recognition and Management. Am J Clin Dermatol 21, 525–539 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-020-00520-4

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