Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease associated with an important physical and physiological burden. It primarily affects the skin, but it is associated with several serious medical co-morbidities. One third of total psoriatic cases have their onset during the pediatric age, although some of them may not be diagnosed until the patient reaches adulthood. Additionally, in the pediatric age, there is an association with several medical co-morbidities; thus, an early recognition of the disease and a subsequent appropriate approach may delay or even prevent considerable co-morbidities. Because children are not just ‘small adults’, specific guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of psoriasis are of extreme importance. However, these guidelines are still lacking in this age group. Most of the psoriasis treatments used in adults are not officially approved for the pediatric age and require off-label prescription. Moreover, efficacy and safety studies are lacking in this population, especially with long-term follow-up and outcomes. Many biologic agents have been recently approved for the treatment of psoriasis in children, while others are currently being studied. This bibliographic review aims to summarize the most relevant aspects, as well as updated information about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, co-morbidities and treatment of pediatric psoriasis.
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The authors thank Susana Machado MD and Manuela Selores MD for the clinical images.
No sources of funding were received for the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Maria Relvas has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Tiago Torres has participated in clinical trials sponsored by AbbVie, Amgen, and Novartis and has received honoraria for acting as a consultant and/or as a speaker at events sponsored by AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Leo-Pharma, MSD, Novartis, and Pfizer.
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Relvas, M., Torres, T. Pediatric Psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol 18, 797–811 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-017-0294-9