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American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 373–381 | Cite as

Tranexamic Acid in the Treatment of Melasma: A Review of the Literature

  • Marina PerperEmail author
  • Ariel Eva Eber
  • Rachel Fayne
  • Sebastian Hugo Verne
  • Robert James Magno
  • Jessica Cervantes
  • Mana ALharbi
  • Ibrahim ALOmair
  • Abdulkarem Alfuraih
  • Keyvan Nouri
Review Article

Abstract

Melasma is a common acquired pigmentary disorder marked by irregular hyperpigmented macules or patches and most commonly occurs in women of darker skin color. It is a chronic often-relapsing condition that causes negative psychosocial effects in those affected. Current treatments such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and retinoids, among others, demonstrate variable efficacy and side-effect profiles. We conducted a comprehensive literature review examining the use of tranexamic acid (TA), a well-known anti-fibrinolytic agent, in the treatment of melasma. TA delivered orally, topically, and through physical methods works via the inhibition of ultraviolet (UV)-induced plasmin activity in keratinocytes. Predefined search terms were entered into PubMed. Articles were then independently screened by two authors to include only those written in the English language and relating to human subjects with at least mild melasma. The search identified 28 articles, 15 of which met the criteria for full review. The review revealed that TA treatment for melasma is equally effective or more effective than other standard therapies and may induce fewer side effects. Our comprehensive review suggests that TA may be a promising treatment option for melasma because of its demonstrated effectiveness alone and in combination with other modalities as well as its limited side-effect profile.

Keywords

Tranexamic Acid Kojic Acid Triple Combination Intense Pulse Light Heavy Menstrual Bleeding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Information contained in this manuscript has never been presented or published in the past.

Conflicts of interest

Marina Perper, Ariel Eva Eber, Rachel Fayne, Sebastian Hugo Verne, Robert James Magno, Jessica Cervantes, Mana ALharbi, Ibrahim ALOmair, Abdulkareem Alfuraih, and Keyvan Nouri have no conflicts of interest.

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Ethics statement

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

Informed consent

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Perper
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ariel Eva Eber
    • 1
  • Rachel Fayne
    • 1
  • Sebastian Hugo Verne
    • 1
  • Robert James Magno
    • 1
  • Jessica Cervantes
    • 1
  • Mana ALharbi
    • 2
  • Ibrahim ALOmair
    • 2
  • Abdulkarem Alfuraih
    • 2
  • Keyvan Nouri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous SurgeryUniversity of Miami HospitalMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU)RiyadhSaudi Arabia

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