American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 413–417

Immunostaining for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Condyloma Lesions in Immunocompromised Patients

short communication



Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the underlying infectious cause of condyloma acuminata (CA) and high-risk types of HPV can cause cancer. Condyloma may undergo malignant degeneration, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. The presence of high-risk HPV in CA is a risk factor for developing malignancy; however, determining which patients with condyloma are clinically at risk can be difficult. High-risk HPV can now be localized within CA using routine immunohistochemical stains.


We examined HPV (cocktail, 16, 18) immunohistochemical staining of CA and the relevant clinical history from immunocompromised patients and compared them with age- and sex- matched immunocompetent patients with biopsied CA.


HPV was detected in 9 of the 12 specimens from immunocompromised patients (75%), and 6 of the 12 specimens from the age- and sex-matched comparison patients (50%). HPV-16 was detected in 7 of the 12 specimens from immunocompromised patients (58%), and 4 of the 12 specimens from comparison patients (33%). HPV-18 was not detected in any of the 21 specimens from immunocompromised or comparison patients for which the stain was available.


High-risk HPV is found within CA lesions, more often in immunocompromised patients, and confirming the presence of these HPV types with stains in high-risk patient populations may help guide the clinician in treatment and surveillance in certain cases.


  1. 1.
    Patel H, Wagner M, Singhal P, et al. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:39.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brotherton JML, Ogilvie GS. Current status of human papillomavirus vaccination. Curr Opin Oncol. 2015;27(5):399–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatia N, Lynde C, Vender R, et al. Understanding genital warts: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and burden of disease of human papillomavirus. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(Suppl. 2):S47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garland SM, Steben M, Sings HL, et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(6):805–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown DR, Schroeder JM, Bryan JT, et al. Detection of multiple human papillomavirus types in condylomata acuminata lesions from otherwise healthy and immunosuppressed patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(10):3316–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borghetti A, Cattani P, Maria G, et al. Prevalence, incidence and predictors of anal high-risk HPV infections and cytological abnormalities in HIV-infected individuals. J Infect. 2015;70(1):60–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nordenvall C, Chang ET, Adami HO, et al. Cancer risk among patients with condylomata acuminata. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(4):888–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hawkins MG, Winder DM, Ball SLR, et al. Detection of specific HPV subtypes responsible for the pathogenesis of condylomata acuminata. Virol J. 2013;10:137.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nyitray AG, Carvalho da Silva RJ, Chang M, et al. Incidence, duration, persistence, and factors associated with high-risk anal human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-negative men who have sex with men: a multinational study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(11):1367–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang L, Ci P, Shi J, et al. Distribution of genital wart human papillomavirus genotypes in China: a multi-center study. J Med Virol. 2013;85(10):1765–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations