Immunostaining for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Condyloma Lesions in Immunocompromised Patients
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the underlying infectious cause of condyloma acuminata (CA) and high-risk types of HPV can cause cancer. Condyloma may undergo malignant degeneration, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. The presence of high-risk HPV in CA is a risk factor for developing malignancy; however, determining which patients with condyloma are clinically at risk can be difficult. High-risk HPV can now be localized within CA using routine immunohistochemical stains.
We examined HPV (cocktail, 16, 18) immunohistochemical staining of CA and the relevant clinical history from immunocompromised patients and compared them with age- and sex- matched immunocompetent patients with biopsied CA.
HPV was detected in 9 of the 12 specimens from immunocompromised patients (75%), and 6 of the 12 specimens from the age- and sex-matched comparison patients (50%). HPV-16 was detected in 7 of the 12 specimens from immunocompromised patients (58%), and 4 of the 12 specimens from comparison patients (33%). HPV-18 was not detected in any of the 21 specimens from immunocompromised or comparison patients for which the stain was available.
High-risk HPV is found within CA lesions, more often in immunocompromised patients, and confirming the presence of these HPV types with stains in high-risk patient populations may help guide the clinician in treatment and surveillance in certain cases.