American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 253–260

Intralesional Antigen Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Warts: Current Concepts and Future Prospects

Leading Article

DOI: 10.1007/s40257-013-0018-8

Cite this article as:
Nofal, A., Salah, E., Nofal, E. et al. Am J Clin Dermatol (2013) 14: 253. doi:10.1007/s40257-013-0018-8


Many destructive and immunotherapeutic modalities have been used for the management of warts; however, an optimal treatment with high efficacy and absent or low recurrence has not been explored to date. Recently, the use of intralesional immunotherapy with different antigens has shown promising efficacy in the treatment of warts. We review the different aspects of this new modality, including candidates, types of warts treated, dosage, number and interval between treatment sessions, mode of action, efficacy, adverse effects, recurrence rate, advantages, disadvantages, current place and future prospects. A literature review revealed that healthy immune subjects are the best candidates, and a pre-sensitization test is usually done before the start of therapy. The dosage, the number and interval between sessions, and the success rates varied among the different studies. The mode of action is still uncertain, but is essentially mediated through stimulation of T helper-1 cell cytokine response. Adverse effects are mild and generally insignificant, and the recurrence rate is absent or low. Intralesional antigen immunotherapy seems to be a promising, effective and safe treatment modality for viral warts. Future well-designed and controlled studies would help to more clearly define its place in the challenging field of wart therapy.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Nofal
    • 1
  • Eman Salah
    • 1
  • Eman Nofal
    • 1
  • Ayman Yosef
    • 1
  1. 1.Dermatology Department, Faculty of MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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