Synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing various biological systems: mechanisms and applications—a review

Abstract

The evolving technology of nanoparticle synthesis, especially silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has already been applied in various fields i.e., electronics, optics, catalysis, food, health and environment. With advancement in research, it is possible to develop nanoparticles of various size, shape, morphology, and surface to volume ratio utilizing biological systems. A number of different agents and methods can be employed to develop choice based AgNPs using algae, plants, fungi and bacteria. The use of plant extracts to produce AgNPs appears to be more convenient, as the method is simple, environmental friendly and inexpensive, also requiring a single-step. The microbial synthesis of AgNps showed intracellular and extracellular mechanisms to reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Studies have shown that different size (1–100 nm) and shapes (spherical, triangular and hexagonal etc.) of nanoparticles can be produced from various biological routes and these diverse nanoparticles have various functions and usability i.e., agriculture, medical-science, textile, cosmetics and environment protection. The present review provides an overview of various biological systems used for AgNP synthesis, its underlying mechanisms, further highlighting the current research and applications of variable shape and sized AgNPs.

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Acknowledgements

Authors gratefully acknowledge the Department of Biotechnology (Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology); Department of Microbiology (Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied sciences for Women, University of Delhi) and University School of Environmental Management (Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University) for their kind support. One of the author (Randhir K. Bharti) is thankful to D.S Kothari Post-Doctoral Fellowship, UGC, Govt of India.

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Garg, D., Sarkar, A., Chand, P. et al. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing various biological systems: mechanisms and applications—a review. Prog Biomater (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40204-020-00135-2

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Keywords

  • Nanoparticle
  • Plant
  • Fungi
  • Algae
  • Bacteria