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Use of Taguchi design for optimization of diesel-oil biodegradation using consortium of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas balearica isolated from tarball in Terengganu Beach, Malaysia

Abstract

A consortium of bacteria capable of decomposing oily hydrocarbons was isolated from tarballs on the beaches of Terengganu, Malaysia, and classified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas balearica. The Taguchi design was used to optimize the biodegradation of diesel using these bacteria as a consortium. The highest biodegradation of diesel-oil in the experimental tests was 93.6%, and the individual n-alkanes decomposed 87.6—97.6% over 30 days. Optimal settings were inoculum size of 2.5 mL (1.248 OD600nm); 12% (v/v) the initial diesel-oil in a minimal salt medium of pH 7.0, 30.0 gL−1 NaCl and 2.0 gL−1 NH4NO3 concentration, incubated at 42 °C temperature and 150 rpm agitation speed. Parameters significantly improved diesel-oil removal by consortium as shown by the model determination coefficient (R2 = 90.89%; P < 0.001) with a synergistic effect of agitation speed significantly contributing 81.03%. Taguchi design determined the optimal settings for the parameters under study, which significantly improved diesel-oil removal by consortium. This can be used to design a novel bioremediation strategy that can achieve optimal decontamination of oil pollution in a shorter time.

Highlights

  • Hydrocarbon-degraders in Tarball were isolated and identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequence as Pseudomonas stutzeri, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas balearica.

  • Taguchi method was applied to optimize effects of parameters such as initial diesel concentration, salinity (NaCl concentration), nitrate (NH4NO3) concentration, pH, temperature, agitation speed and inoculum size on diesel-oil removal in 30 days.

  • Maximum diesel-oil biodegradation by experimental runs was 93.6% with individual n-alkanes degraded between 87.6% – 97.6% in 30 days

  • Optimal settings were 2.5 mL (1.248 OD600nm) inoculum size; 12% (v/v) initial diesel-oil in MSM media with 7.0 pH, 30.0 gL−1 NaCl and 2.0 gL−1 NH4NO3 concentration, incubated at 42 °C temperature and 150 rpm agitation speed

  • Parameters significantly improved diesel-oil removal by this consortium as indicated by model determination coefficient (R2 = 90.89%; P < 0.001) with synergistic effect of agitation speed significantly contributing 81.03%

  • Taguchi design established optimal settings of investigated parameters that produced significant improvement on diesel-oil removal by consortium

AbstractSection Graphical abstract

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Data availability

We further confirm that datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

µL:

Microliter

16S rRNA:

16S ribosomal RNA

A. baumannii :

Acinetobacter baumannii

Adj. SS:

Adjusted sum of squares

Adj. MS:

Adjusted mean squares

ANOVA:

Analysis of Variance

BLAST:

Basic Local Alignment System Tool

°C:

Degree Celsius

C. cellulans :

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

CI:

Confidence interval

conc.:

Concentration

DCM:

Dichloromethane

df:

Degree of freedom

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

dNTP:

Deoxy nucleoside triphosphates

g:

Gram

GC-MS:

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

gL 1 :

Gram per litre

h:

Hours

HPLC:

High performance liquid chromatography

L:

Liter

LB:

Luria Bertani

MEGA:

Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis

mg:

Milligram

mL:

Milliliter

MSM:

Minimal salt media

NaCl:

Sodium chloride

NB:

Nominal is best

NCBI:

National Center for Biotechnology Information

ng/mg:

Nanogram per milligram

NH4NO3 :

Ammonium nitrate

OD600nm :

Optical density at 600 nm

OFAT:

One-factor-a-time

P. balearica :

Pseudomonas balearica

PCR:

Polymerase chain reaction

ppm:

Parts per million

P. stutzeri :

Pseudomonas stutzeri

rpm:

Revolutions per minute

SE Coefficients:

Standard error coefficients

secs:

Seconds

SIS:

Surrogate internal standard

SN:

Signal noise

v/v:

Volume per volume

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Acknowledgements

This study was sponsored by Geran Putra IPB (UPM Reference Code: UPM/700-2/1/GP-IPB/2013/9412400) and Geran Putra IPB (UPM Reference Code: UPM/700-2/1/GP/2018/9592200) awarded by Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). We also acknowledge the contributions of International Institute of Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences/Department of Aquaculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia for laboratory equipment provided for conducting experiments.

Funding

Research on this publication was funded by: Geran Putra IPB (UPM Reference Code: UPM/700–2/1/GP-IPB/2013/9412400).

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We confirm that authors listed in this manuscript made substantial contributions to research design, data analysis and interpretation. They were also involved in drafting and critically revision of manuscripts’ intellectual content. They have given their final approval for publication.

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Correspondence to Normala Halimoon.

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We wish to confirm that there are no known competing interests associated with this publication. We would like to draw the attention of the Editor to the following publication of one or more of us that refer to aspects of the manuscript presently being submitted: Isolation, identification and diesel-oil biodegradation capacities of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Acinetobacter baumannii from tarball at Terengganu beach, Malaysia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.03.060

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Nkem, B.M., Halimoon, N., Yusoff, F.M. et al. Use of Taguchi design for optimization of diesel-oil biodegradation using consortium of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas balearica isolated from tarball in Terengganu Beach, Malaysia. J Environ Health Sci Engineer (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-022-00812-3

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Keywords

  • Bacteria consortium
  • Biodegradation
  • Diesel-oil
  • Optimization
  • Taguchi design
  • Tarball